Computer-aided analysis of saturation in synchronous machines

Computer-aided analysis of saturation in synchronous machines

Sourish SanyalSohorab Hossain Sujit Dhar  Amar N. Sanyal 

ECE Department, Techno India, Salt Lake, Kolkata, 700091, India

EE Department, MCKV Institute of Engineering, Howrah, 711204, India

EEE Department, NEOTIA Institute of Technology Management and Science, Kolkata, 743368, India

EE Department, CIEM, Kolkata (formerly faculty member, Jadavpur University), 743368, India

Corresponding Author Email:
30 June 2017
| Citation



There are a number of secondary effects in a synchronous machine which are most often neglected to develop a simplified model. This procedure is simple and straight-forward, but it gives rise to much errors. To avoid the errors, the modelers have developed several techniques. Saturation is one of the secondary effects which become quite dominant at certain load conditions. In the earlier regimes, grapho-analytical techniques were developed to treat the effect of saturation. But such methods were tedious, complex and time-consuming. Now they should be replaced by computer methods. This paper gives a comprehensive discussion on the various methods developed to treat the effect of  saturation. It also gives computer-aided methods to replace the older methods.


Saturation, Grapho-analytical Technique, Exponential Method, Frolich’s Equation, Method of Least Square.

1. Introduction
2. The Existing Methods
3. The Kingsley's Method
4. The Method Suggested by Anderson and Fouad
5. The Exponential Method
6. Frolich's Equation
7. Modified Frolich's Equation
8. Conclusions

[1] Venikov V. (1977). Transient processes in electric power system, Book, MIR Publishers.

[2] Adkins B., Harley R.G. (1975). Generalized theory of A.C. machines, Book, Chapman & Hall, London.

[3] Anderson P.M., Fouad A.A. (2011). Power system control and stability, 2nd. Ed., IEEE Press, Wiley-Interscience.

[4] Kundur P. (2011). Power system stability and control, McGraw-Hill Inc., the EPRI Power System Engineering Series.

[5] Murty P.S.R. Modelling of power system components, Book, B.S. Publications, India.

[6] Kopylov I.P. (1984). Mathematical models of electric machines, MIR Publications, Moscow.

[7] Okabe M., Okada M., Tsuchiya H. (1983). Effects of magnetic characteristics of materials on the iron loss in the three-phase transformer core, IEEE Trans. Magn, Vol. 19, No. 5, pp. 2192-2194.

[8] Hayt W.H. Engineering circuit analysis, 6/e Tata Mcgraw-Hill.

[9] Shawney A.K. A course in electrical machine design, Dhanpat Rai and Co., New Delhi.

[10] Say M.G. Performance and design of AC machines, CBS Publishers and Distributors Pvt. Ltd.

[11] Kambo N.S. (1991). Mathematical programming techniques, revised edition, 1991, 1984, Affiliated East-West Press Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi–110 001, ISBN 81-85336-47-4.

[12] Ramamoorty M. (1987). Computer-aided design of electrical equipment, Affiliated East-West Press, ISBN: 81-85095-57-4 New Delhi, ISBN 81`85095-57-4.

[13] Kreyszig E. (2001). Advanced engineering mathematics, Wiley, New York.

[14] Rajaraman V. Computer-oriented numerical methods, Prentice Hall of India.

[15] Bimbhra P.S. Electrical Machinery, Khanna Publishers, ISBN: 81-7409-016-9

[16] Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd., Operating Manual on 210 MW turbogenerator-set.