Due to the persistently high frequency of flood-related disasters, which are exacerbated by the on-going effects of climate change, the impacts of flooding on cities and towns can be devastating and deadly, resulting in the need to design and assessment of flood protection object (FPO). In their preparation, implementation, evaluation and authorization it is necessary to ensure consistent application of the environmental impact assessment (EIA). This paper explores the benefits of using the risk assessment/ analysis technique in the evaluation of FPO by examining the results of the EIA for a selected planned FPO in Slovakia. The methodology consists of three steps: identification, prediction and evaluation of the impacts of flood protection measures on the environment. Risk analysis (RA), based on determination of probability and consequences, is an appropriate tool to determine the level of the risk of the proposed flood mitigation measures and through which it is possible to choose the alternative with the lowest level of risk for the environment. This paper introduces an application of a new approach for risk assessment of actions in water management (FPO projects) using risk analysis method – universal matrix of risk analysis (UMRA) and matrix of qualitative and semi-quantitative assessment. Analysis and evaluation of environmental impacts of FPO in Snakov village on the environment prove that construction of polder is better alternative for flood protection of village than water course regulation.
environmental impact assessment (EIA), flood protection objects (FPO), risk analysis (RA), universal matrix of risk analysis (UMRA)
 Gałaś, S., Assessment of the quality of the environment in the V4 countries. Krakow: AGH University of Science and Technology Press, 2014.
 Morgan, R.K., Environmental impact assessment: the state of the art. Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal, 30, pp. 5–14, 2012. https://doi.org/10.1080/14615517.2012.661557
 Petts, J., Handbook of Environmental Impact Assessment, vol. I. London: Blackwell Science, pp. 3–11, 1999.
 Wang, Y.M., Yan, J.B. & Xu, D.L., Environmental impact assessment using evidential reasoning approach. European Journal of Operational Research, 174, pp. 1885–1913, 2006. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejor.2004.09.059
 Tamura, H., Fujita, S. & Koi, H., Decision analysis for environmental impact assessment and consensus formation among conflicting multiple agents. Science of the Total Environment, 153, pp. 203–210, 1994. https://doi.org/10.1016/0048-9697(94)90199-6
 Flyvbjerg, B., Policy and planning for large–infrastructure projects: problems, causes, cures. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 34, 578–597, 2007. https://doi.org/10.1068/b32111
 Zhou, K. & Sheate, W.R., EIA application in China’s expressway infrastructure: clarifying the decision–making hierarchy. Journal of Environmental Management, 92, pp. 1471–1483, 2011. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2010.12.011
 Ludwig, H.F., Gunartnam, D. & Yuming, S., Environmental impact assessment for Xiaolangdi Yellow River multi-purpose economic-cum-environmental improvement project. Environmentalist, 15, pp. 45–57, 1995. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01888889
 Al-Agha, M.R. & Mortaja, R.S., Desalination in the Gaza Strip: drinking water supply and environmental impact. Desalination, 173, pp. 157–171, 2005. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2004.06.212
 EC (European Commission), Regions 2020. The climate change challenge for European regions. Brussels. 2009.
 Pollner, J., Kryspin-Watson, J. & Nieuwejaar, S., Disaster Risk Management and Climate Change Adaptation in Europe and Central Asia. Washington: WB, 2010.
 EPA (Environmental Protection Authority), Review of the Environmental Impact Assessment Process in Western Australia. Perth, Western Australia, 2009.
 Kundzewicz, Z.W., et al., Flood risk and climate change: global and regional perspectives. Hydrological Sciences Journal, 59, pp. 1–28, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1080/02626667.2013.857411
 Korytárová, J., Šlezingr, M. & Uhmannová, H., Determination of potential damage to representatives of real estate property in areas afflicted by flooding. Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics, 55, pp. 282–228, 2007.
 Li, G.F., Xiang, X.Y., Tong, Y.Y. & Wang, H.M., Impact assessment of urbanization on flood risk in the Yangtze River Delta. Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment, 27, pp. 1683–1693, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00477-013-0706-1
 Hanák, T. & Korytárová, J., Risk zoning in the context of insurance: comparison of flood, snow load, windstorm and hailstorm. Journal of Applied Engineering Science, 2, pp. 137–144, 2014. https://doi.org/10.5937/jaes12-6098
 Canter, L.W., Methods for Effective Environmental Information Assessment (EIA) Practice. In: AEPI. Environmental Methods Review: Retooling Impact Assessment for the New Century. 1998.
 Lexer, W., Paluchova, K. & Schwarzl, B., Risk Assessment. IMProving the IMPlementation of Environmental IMPact Assessment 3 Risk Assessment D 3.2 Report WP 3. Vienna: Österreichisches Institut für Raumplanung, 2006.
 Zou, Q., Zhou, J., Zhou, Ch., Song, L. & Guo, J., Comprehensive flood risk assessment based on set pair analysis-variable fuzzy sets model and fuzzy AHP Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment, 27, pp. 525–546, 2012. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00477-012-0598-5
 Ji, Z., Li, N., Xie, W., Wu, J. & Zhou, Y., Comprehensive assessment of flood risk using the classification and regression tree method. Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment, 27, pp. 1815–1828, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00477-013-0716-z
 Levy, J.K., Multiple criteria decision making and decision support systems for flood risk management. Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment, 19, pp. 438–447, 2005. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00477-005-0009-2
 Gałaś, S., Gałaś, A., Zeleňáková, M., Zvijáková, L., Fialová, J., Kubičková, H., Environmental impact assessment in the Visegrad Group countries. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 55, pp. 11–20, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eiar.2015.06.006
 Su, H.T. & Tung Y.K., Multi-criteria decision making under uncertainty for flood mitigation. Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment, 27, pp. 1815–1828, 2014.
 Shah, A., Salimullah, K., Sha, M.H., Razaulkah, K. & Jan I.F., Environmental impact assessment (EIA) of infrastructure development projects in developing countries. International Journal of Sustainable Development, 1, pp. 47–54. 2010.
 The National Council of the Slovak Republic. Act of Law No. 24/2006 from December 14th 2005 on Environmental Impact Assessment and its amendments.
 Zvijáková, L., Zeleňáková, M. & Purcz, P., Evaluation of environmental impact assessment effectiveness in Slovakia. Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal, 32, pp. 150–161, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1080/14615517.2014.893124
 Zavadskas, E.K., Turskis, Z. & Tamošaitienė, J., Risk assessment of construction projects. Journal Civil Engineering and Management, 16, pp. 33–46, 2010. https://doi.org/10.3846/jcem.2010.03
 Šauer, P., Kreuz, J., Hadrabová, A. & Dvořák, A., Assessment of environmental policy implementation: two case studies from the Czech Republic. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 21, pp. 1383–1391, 2012.
 Zeleňáková, M., Gałaś, S., Zvijáková, L. & Šlezingr, M., Calculation of risk posed by flood protection measures as part of the environmental impact assessment process. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 21, pp. 459–463, 2012.
 Gilbuena, Jr.R., Kawamura, A., Medina, R., Amaguchi, H., Nakagawa, N. & Du Bui D., Environmental impact assessment of structural flood mitigation measures by a rapid impact assessment matrix (RIAM) technique: A case study in Metro Manila, Philippines. Science of the Total Environment, 456–457, pp. 137–147, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.03.063
 Špačková, O., Straub, D. & Rimböck A., How to select optimal mitigation strategies for natural hazards? In: 11th International Conference on Structural Safety & Reliability -ICOSSAR 2013, Columbia University, NY, 2013.
 Zeleňáková, M. & Zvijáková, L., Using Risk Analysis for Flood Protection Assessment Springer International Publishing, Hardcover ISBN 978-3-319-52149-7 2017.
 Zeleňáková, M., Sarka, D. & Zvijáková, L., Snakov – flood mitigation measures in the village. Preliminary environmental study, worked out according to Law No. 24/2006 Z.z. on environmental impact assessment, Košice, 2011.
 Zvijáková, L. & Zeleňáková, M., Risk analysis in the process of on environmental impact assessment of flood protection objects (in Slovak), Prague: Leges, 2015.
 Australian Government, Risk Analysis Framework. Australia: Commonwealth of Australia, 2005.
 Department of Defense, Standard practice for system safety, MIL-STD-882D, USA: Department of Defense, 2000.
 MoE (Ministry of the Environment), SAE (Slovak Agency of the Environment) Environmental regionalization of the Slovak Republic (Environmentálna regionalizácia Slovenskej republiky) (in Slovak), [online]. Bratislava: MoE SR, Košice: SAE, 2010 [cit. 2016-02-14]. Available at: http://www1.enviroportal.sk/clanok.php?cl=14075
 Soják, L. et al, Monitoring of contamination of the environment (Monitoring kontaminácie životného prostredia) (in Slovak) [online]. Bratislava: Commenius University, 2002 [cit. 2016-05-11]. Available at: http://www.fns.uniba.sk/uploads/media/Monitoring_kontaminacie_zivotneho_prostredia.pdf
 Zvijáková, L. & Zeleňáková, M., Environmental impact assessment of structural flood mitigation measures: a case study in Siba, Slovakia. Environmental Earth Sciences, 75, pp. 1–10, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-016-5646-x