Blast Resistant Trash Receptacles with Blast Loading Redirection–Comparative Analyses

Blast Resistant Trash Receptacles with Blast Loading Redirection–Comparative Analyses

Jovan Trajkovski Robert Kunc Jasenko Perenda Matevž Fazarnic Ivan Prebil

University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Chair of Modelling in Engineering Sciences and Medicine, Ljubljana, Slovenia, EU

Acroni D.O.O., Jesenice, Slovenia, EU

Ravne Systems d.o.o., Ravne na Koroškem, Slovenia, EU

| |
| | Citation



Many terrorist attacks in the last decade around the world have exposed the vulnerability of citizens in public places. Public trash receptacles can be easily abused as well-covered places in which Improvised Explosive Devices (IED) can be simply left and then remotely activated. Therefore, blast resistance and possibility of blast loads redirection are very important characteristics of trash receptacles placed in crowded public areas. This paper presents the results of three different trash receptacles: non-blast resistant, blast resistant and blast resistant trash receptacle with blast load redirection. The results have shown that a considerable effect can be achieved by using blast resistant receptacles, thus reducing the possibility of deaths and injuries. A thickness optimization study was additionally performed, based on the size and geometry of the opening by using a finite element model. Based on the results of the study, some valuable recommendations for design of trash receptacles are also given.


blast loading, blast response, blast response container, trash receptacle


[1] Statistical Information On Terrorism In 2014 Excellence ADoHSSaTCo, 2015.

[2] Bruce, R.P. & Jon, E.W., Conwep - conventional weapons effects prediction evaluation test series, Vicksburg, MS, U.S.A. United States. Army. Corps of Engineers, 1991.

[3] Alia, A. & Souli, M., High explosive simulation using multi-material formulations. Applied Thermal Engineering, 26, pp. 1032–1042, 2006.

[4] Olovsson, L. & Souli, M., ALE and Fluid-Structure Interaction Capabilities in LS-DY-NA.

[5] Souli, M., Ouahsine, A. & Lewin, L., ALE formulation for fluid–structure interaction problems. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 190, pp. 659–675, 2000.

[6] Lacome, J.L., Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH): A New Feature in LS-DYNA, 6th International LS-DYNA Users Conference, 2000.

[7] Liu, G.R. & Liu, M.B., Smoothed particle hydrodynamics. World Scientific Publishing,


[8] Swegle, J.W. & Attaway, S.W., On the feasibility of using smoothed particle hydro- dynamics for underwater explosion calculations. Computational Mechanics, 17, pp. 151–168, 1995.

[9] Børvik, T., Hanssen, A.G., Langseth, M. & Olovsson, L., Response of structures to planar blast loads – a finite element engineering approach. Computers & Structures, 87, pp. 507–520, 2009.

[10] Neuberger, A., Peles, S. & Rittel, D., Scaling the response of circular plates subjected to large and close-range spherical explosions. Part I: Air-blast loading. International Journal of Impact Engineering, 34, pp. 859–873, 2007.

[11] Trajkovski, J., Kunc, R., Perenda, J. & Prebil, I., Minimum mesh design criteria for blast wave development and structural response-MMALE method. Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures, 11, 1999–2017, 2014.

[12] Zakrisson, B., Häggblad, H.Á. & Jonsén, P., Modelling and simulation of explosions in soil interacting with deformable structures. Centeurjeng, 2, pp. 532–550, 2012.

[13] Zakrisson, B., Wikman, B. & Häggblad, H.Å., Numerical simulations of blast loads and structural deformation from near-field explosions in air. International Journal of Impact Engineering, 38, pp. 597–612, 2011.

[14] Zhao, C.F., Chen, J.Y., Wang, Y. & Lu, S.J., Damage mechanism and response of reinforced concrete containment structure under internal blast loading. Theoretical and Applied Fracture Mechanics, 61, pp. 12–20, 2012.

[15] Benham, R.A. & Duffey, T.A., Experimental-theoretical correlation on the containment of explosions in closed cylindrical vessels. International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, 16, pp. 549–558, 1974.

[16] Langdon, G.S., Ozinsky, A. & Chung Kim Yuen, S., The response of partially confined right circular stainless steel cylinders to internal air-blast loading. International Journal of Impact Engineering, 73, pp. 1–14, 2014.

[17] Liu, X., Tian, Z., Jian Lu, T., Zhou, D. & Liang, B., Blast resistance of sandwich- walled hollow cylinders with graded metallic foam cores. Composite Structures, 94, pp. 2485–2493, 2012.

[18] Yousef, A., Hamid, A. & Abdol, H., Blast assessment of trash and recycling receptacles, 2011.

[19] Barsotti, M.A., Puryear, J.M.K., Stevens, D.J., Alberson, R.M. & McMahon, P., Modeling mine blast with SPH. 12th International LS-DYNA User Conference, Detroit, USA. 2012.

[20] Wang, Z., Lu, Y., Hao, H. & Chong, K., A full coupled numerical analysis approach for buried structures subjected to subsurface blast. Computers & Structures, 83, pp. 339–356, 2005.

[21] Xu, J.X. & Liu X.L., Analysis of structural response under blast loads using the coupled SPH-FEM approach. Journal of Zhejiang University Science A, 9, 1184–1192, 2008.


[23] Antoci, C., Gallati, M. & Sibilla, S., Numerical simulation of fluid–structure interaction by SPH. Computers & Structures, 85, pp. 879–890, 2007.

[24] Genevieve, T. & Robert, D., Finite element simulation using SPH particles as loading on typical Light Armoured Vehicles. 10th International Ls-Dyna Users Conference, 2008.

[25] Geneviève, T. & Amal, B., Comparison of ALE and SPH methods for simulating mine blast effects on structures. DRDC Valcartier. Dec. 2010.

[26] Johnson, G.R. & Cook W.H. A constitutive model and data for metals subjected to large strains, high strain rates and high temperatures. Proceedings of the 7th International simposium on Balistics, The Hague Netherlands, pp. 541–547, 1983.

[27] Johnson, G.R. & Cook, W.H., Fracture characteristics of three metals subjected to vari- ous strains, strain rates, temperatures and pressures. Engineering Fracture Mechanics, 21, pp. 31–48, 1985.

[28] Iqbal, M.A., Senthil, K., Bhargava, P. & Gupta, N.K., The characterization and ballistic evaluation of mild steel. International Journal of Impact Engineering, 78, pp. 98–113, 2015.

[29] Berneticˇ, J., Kosec, B. & Smolej, A., Razvoj modela za napovedovanje kaljivosti viso- kotrdnih malolegiranih jekel: doktorska disertacija. J. Berneticˇ 2013.

[30] Berneticˇ, J., Vuherer, T., Marcˇeticˇ, M. & Vuruna, M., Experimental research on new grade of steel protective material for the light armored vehicles. Journal of Mechanical Engineering, 58, 2012.

[31] Trajkovski, J., Kunc, R., Pepel, V. & Prebil, I., Flow and fracture behavior of high- strength armor steel PROTAC 500. Materials & Design, 66, pp. 37–45, 2015.

[32] Zukas, J.A. & Walters, W.P., Explosive Effects and Applications, Springer: London, Limited 2002.