Effect of Titanium Nitrate Nanoparticles on Optical Properties of PVA/PEG Blend for Optoelectronics Detectors

Effect of Titanium Nitrate Nanoparticles on Optical Properties of PVA/PEG Blend for Optoelectronics Detectors

Musaab Khudhur MohammedEman Hammod AbdullahDalal HassanAhmed Hashim

Department of Physics, College of Education for Pure Sciences, University of Babylon, 51002, Iraq

Corresponding Author Email: 
29 April 2022
23 August 2022
9 September 2022
Available online: 
31 December 2022
| Citation

© 2022 IIETA. This article is published by IIETA and is licensed under the CC BY 4.0 license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).



In this work, casting method was used to fabricate the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/ poly ethylene glycol (PEG) nanocomposite with different content of titanium nitride nanoparticle (TiN NPs). This nanocomposite was analyzed to use a Spectrophotometry with a spectral region of 200-800 nm. The absorption enhances when the added TiN NPs to the polymeric matrix which may be used for various applications such as optoelectronic detector. The optical energy gap for indirect transition (allowed and forbidden) decreased as TiN NPs content increases. Moreover, all optical constants have been determined.


nanocomposite, TiN optical characterise, PVA/PEG, nanoparticle

1. Introduction

Polymer nanocomposites have prompted a lot of interest, and they could be used in a variety of technological and industrial uses like flexible computer monitors, radio interference shielding for cables, and pharmaceutical industries [1]. Polymer composites have distinct properties that allow them to be used in an infinite number of applications. Among other advantages, novel compound polymers' easy treatingmethods and optical characteristic make them viable candidates for a wide range of optoelectronic uses, including integrated optics, sensor arrays, microlayers, nanophotonics, optical communication, and processing of data. [2–5].Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was a very well powerful and flexible aqueous solution polymer, with cheap cost, ease of therapy as a formed film, good elasticity and stable photoconductive substance, excellent dielectric characteristics, and great chargeability. As a result, it can be used in a large variation of viable uses in numerous industry and scientific fields [6-8]. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) has important properties such as excellent water solubility, protein rich adsorbent reaction, and low toxicity, and is thus used in a range of applications including a protective coating for biotechnical applications [9-10].TiN has been investigated for the last thirty years owing to the unique combined application of their properties of materials [11]. TiN's metallic behaviour, combined including its toughness and chemical stability, has sparked the interest of researchers in microelectronics [12]. The optical characterization of TiN thin films was expanded in response to the growing interest in the field of plasmonics [13-16]. PVA doped wiith various materials were investagated to apply in different electronics, photonics and biomedical fields [17-20]. This paper deals with synthesis of (PVA/PEG/TiN) nanocomposites and investigating optical properties to use in optoelectronics devices.

2. Materials and Methods

Polyvinyl alcohol(PVA)/polyethylene glycol(PEG) with different content of titanium nitride nanoparticle (TiN NPs)(1.5%, 3% and 4.5%) was prepared by casting technique. The nanocomposite prepared by dissolving (1gm) of (81%PVA/19%PEG) in (30ml) of distil water. The optical characteristics of PVA/PEG/TiN nanocomposite were examined via spectrophotometer (UV-18000A-Shimadzu).

The absorption coefficient (α) has been calculated  by [21]:

$\alpha=2.303(\mathrm{~A} / \mathrm{d})$          (1)

where A is the absorbance and d is the thickness.

The band gap energy (Eg) is given by [21]:

$(\alpha h v)^{1 / m}=C\left(h v-E_g\right)$          (2)

where C is constant, hυ is the photon energy, Eg is the energy gap, m = 2 and 3 to allowed and forbidden indirect transitions.  The refractive index(n)  defined as [22]:

$n=\frac{1+\sqrt{R}}{1-\sqrt{R}}$          (3)

where R denotes reflection.

The extinction coefficient (k) is calculated as follows [22]:

$k=\frac{\alpha \lambda}{4 \pi}$          (4)

where λ denotes wavelength.

The dielectric constant parts: real (ε1), and imaginary (ε2) are defined by [23]:

$\varepsilon_1=\mathrm{n}^2-\mathrm{k}^2$          (5)

$\varepsilon_2=2 \mathrm{nk}$          (6)

The optical conductivity (σop) is given by [23].

$\sigma_{\mathrm{op}}=\frac{\alpha \mathrm{nc}}{4 \pi}$          (7)

3. Results and Discussions

The absorbance spectra of (PVA/PEG/TiN) nanocomposite are shown in Figure 1. It is obtained that the absorbance rises when increasing the content of TiN NPs. This behaviour attributed to increase in the charges carriers numbers [24-26], therefore the transmittance reduces as shown in Figure 2.

The absorption coefficient (α) tells us about on the transition nature. The value of α for the PVA/PEG/TiN nanocomposite is shown in Figure 3. From this figure, it is observed that the α>104 cm-1 which means the indirect transition happens. The rise of α is related to a rise in light absorption [23]. The nanocomposites are said to have an indirect energy gap if the value of α is less than 104 cm-1. The blend has low α. This may be as a result of low crystallinity [24, 25]. Figures 4 and 5 show that the energy gap for allowed and forbidden for the PVA/PEG/TiN nanocomposite respectively. It is obtained that the Eg reduces when the rise of content of TiN NPs attributed to formation of defects and levels inside band gap therefore the value of Eg will be reduced [27-37].

The refractive index and extinction coefficient of PVA/PEG/TiN nanocomposite are represented in Figures 6 and 7. From these figures, it is obtained that the value of n and K increase when the increasing content in TiN NPs which is attributed to increase of α and density of films [38].

The dielectric constant includes real and imaginary of the PVA/PEG/TiN nanocomposite are performance in Figures 8 and 9. It is shown that the ε1 and ε2 rise when increasing the content of TiN NPs due to increase of the value of n and k [39, 40].

The optical conductivity of PVA/PEG/TiN nanocomposite is demonstrated in Figure 10. It is seen that the σoprise with rising of TiN NPs content due to relation to the decrease in energy gap and increase in absorbance [41-43].

Figure 1. Absorbance pattern of PVA/PEG/TiN nanocomposite

Figure 2. Transmittance pattern of PVA/PEG/TiN nanocomposite

Figure 3. Absorbance coefficient pattern of PVA/PEG/TiN nanocomposite

Figure 4. Energy band gap values of PVA/PEG/TiN nanocomposite

Figure 5. Energy band gap values of PVA/PEG/TiN nanocomposite

Figure 6. Refractive index values of PVA/PEG/TiN nanocomposite

Figure 7. Extinction coefficient values of PVA/PEG/TiN nanocomposite

Figure 8. Real dielectric constant values of PVA/PEG/TiN nanocomposite

Figure 9. Imaginary dielectric constant of PVA/PEG/TiN nanocomposite

Figure 10. Optical conductivity values of PVA/PEG/TiN nanocomposite

4. Conclusion

This work includes manufacturing the PVA/PEG/TiN nanocomposite and examining the optical characteristics to application in optoelectronic detector. The optical characteristics of PVA/PEG/TiN nanocomposite are tested at wavelengths range (200-800) nm. When the TiN NPs content increases, the absorption increases and transmission decreases of PVA/PEG. The energy band gap is reduced when the increase in content TiN NPs. The optical factors of PVA/PEG/TiN nanocomposite are enhanced with addition of the TiN NPs content. The optical characteristics results showed that PVA/PEG/TiN nanocomposite may be employed in optoelectronic detector.


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