Scheduling is one of the driving factors in the success of a construction project and it is a critical step for all team members as it provides guidance to where and when they should perform work. Despite its important role, scheduling is typically based on approximate time schedules, which often lead to delays and extra costs. This is due to the lack of visualizing the real effort before the construction phase starts, as well as the difficulty in managing a large number of uncertain factors using traditional approaches. According to many studies, building information modeling aims at improving the quality of construction scheduling by enabling virtual simulations and by promoting digital working space. In this context, following questions arise: How does BIM support the digitalization of the scheduling process? Which are the benefits and criticisms of applying BIM for construction scheduling in a SME environment? This paper aims at evaluating the role of BIM in the digitalization of the construction scheduling process and its suitability for SMEs companies through a real case study. The paper starts with a state of the art on relevant applications of BIM for construction scheduling. Afterwards, the paper suggests a framework for combining construction scheduling and BIM, considering a case study used to verify the feasibility of the integrated method. Finally, findings from the implementation of the proposed framework are summarized, particularly examining the role of BIM in digitalizing the construction scheduling process, as well as the benefits and criticisms of its applicability to SMEs.
BIM 4D, building information modeling, construction scheduling, SMEs
 Miller, R., Strombom, D., Iammarino, M. & Black, B., The commercial real estate revolution: Nine transforming keys to lowering costs, cutting waste and driving change in a broken
industry, Wiley, 2009.
 Krause, D., Matt, D., Bullinger, S. & Rauch, R., Schlanke Prozesse in Baunetzwerken, Survey build4future, Fraunhofer Verlag, 2012.
 Malacarne, G., Pasetti Monizza, G., Ratajczak, J., Krause, D., Benedetti, C. & Matt, D., Prefabricated timber facade for the energy refurbishment of the Italian building stock: the Ri.Fa.Re. project. Energy Procedia, 96, pp. 788–799, 2016. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.egypro.2016.09.141
 Dallasega, P., Rauch, E. & Matt, D., Increasing productivity in ETO construction projects through a lean methodology for demand predictability. International Conference on Industrial
Engineering and Operation Management (IEOM), 2015. https://doi.org/10.1109/IEOM.2015.7093734
 Dallasega, P., Matt, D. & Krause, D., Design of the building execution process in SME construction networks. Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Design in Civil and Environmental Engineering, pp. 7–15, 2013.
 Forbes, L.H. & Ahmed, S.M., Modern construction. Lean project delivery and integrated practices, CRC Press: Boca Raton, pp. 94–100, 2011.
 Rother, M. & Shook, J., Learning to see – Value Stream Mapping to Create Value and Eliminate Muda, Lean Enterprise Institute, Cambridge, 2009.
 Dallasega, P., Marengo, E., Nutt, W., Rescic, L., Matt, D. & Rauch, E., Design of a Framework for supporting the Execution-Management of Small and Medium sized Projects in the AEC-industry. Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Design in Civil and Environmental Engineering, pp. 60–71, 2015.
 Malsane, S.M. & Sheth, A.Z., Simulate construction schedules using BIM 4D application to track progress, International Journal of Mechanical and Product Engineering, 3, pp. 54–58, 2015.
 Hardin, B. & Mccool, D., BIM and construction management, Wiley: Indianapolis, pp. 20–21, 2015.
 Ratajczak, J., Malacarne, G., Krause, D. & Matt, D., The BIM approach and stakeholders integration in the AEC Sector – Benefits and obstacles in South Tyrolean context. Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Design in Civil and Environmental Engineering, pp. 32–40, 2015.
 Art. 23 D.gls. n.50, 18 Aprile 2016, http://www.bosettiegatti.eu/info/norme/ statali/2016_0050.htm, Accessed April 04, 2017.
 Ciribini, A.L.C., BIM e Digitalizzazione dell´Ambiente Costruito, Grafill: Palermo, pp. 387–395, 2016.
 Gobbi, G. & Thurner, B., Alto Adige in cifre 2016, Provincia Autonoma di Bolzano –Alto Adige Istituto Provinciale di Statistica, Bolzano, 2016.
 Metkari, A.A. &Attar, A. C., Application of building information modeling tool for building project. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), 4, pp. 324–329, 2015.
 Sattineni, A. & Bradford II, R.H., Estimating with BIM: a survey of US construction companies. Proceedings of the 28th International Symposium on Automation and Robotics in Construction, pp. 564–569, 2011.
 Liu, H., Lu, M. & Al-Hussein, M., BIM-based integrated framework for detailed cost estimation and schedule planning of construction projects. Proceedings of the 31st International Symposium on Automation and Robotics in Construction and Mining, pp. 286–294, 2014.
 Boton, C., Kubicki, S. & Halin, G., 4D/BIM simulation for pre-construction and construction scheduling. Multiple levels of development within a single case study. Proceedings of the Creative Construction Conference, pp. 500–505, 2015.