Renewable energy potential for strengthening the energy security in East Sumba–Sumba Island zone

Renewable energy potential for strengthening the energy security in East Sumba–Sumba Island zone

Yulianto Budi Maarif Syamsul Hardjomidjojo Hartrisari Hardjomidjojo Hartrisari


Bogor Agriculture Institute Business School, Indonesia

Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Administrative Science, Universitas Indonesia, Indonesia

| |
| | Citation



Sumba Island has been dubbed as the Iconic Island of renewable energy (RE). However, the realisation of such title has yet to go smoothly and optimally, and it has been faced with manifold hurdles, espe- cially those in relation to the programme continuity; even the electrification rate realised fell short of the rate target. This research aimed to analyse the RE with the highest potential that could be developed to strengthen the energy security of the Sumba Timur–Sumba Island zone. This research employed a hard system approach, namely, the Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS), a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) method. Primary data were collected from fill- ing out expert-justified questionnaire. The experts were selected on purpose based on the criteria that they should have full understanding of the conditions and potential of renewable energy sources in Sumba Timur, be sufficiently experienced and be professional. The TOPSIS method was employed for the purpose of determining which RE source has the most potential according to the renewable energy security index. This study involved 30 experts and practitioners, comprising 11 government officials (G), eight businessmen (B), five academics/researchers (A), four community members (C) and two finance agency employees. The results showed that solar energy is the most promising and pos- sible energy source to be developed in East Sumba in the context of strengthening renewable natural resource–based energy source, while other potential alternative energy sources are hydro energy and wind energy.


East Sumba, natural resources, renewable energy, solar energy, TOPSIS


[1] Imbert, E., Ladu, L., Morone, P. & Quitzow, R., Comparing policy strategies for a tran- sition to a bioeconomy in Europe: The case of Italy and Germany. Energy Research & Social Science, 33, pp.70–81, 2017.

[2] Silveria, F.S. & Luken, R.A., Global overview of industrial energy intensity. Energy Policy Journal, 36, pp. 2658–2664, 2008.

[3] Hivos, Sumba: An Iconic Island to Demonstrate the Potential of Renewable Energy, 2012.

[4] Lomi, A., Pulau Ikonis Energi Terbarukan sebagai Pulau Percontohan Mandiri Energi Terbarukan di Indonesia, Proceedings SENIATI: Green Technology Innovation. https://, pp. 1–6, 2016.

[5] Yasin, A., Ketahanan dan Kedaulatan Energi Indonesia., Jakarta (ID): Info Risiko Fis- kal, Pusat Pengelolaan Risiko Fiskal, BKF, Kementerian Keuangan, 1, p. 21, 2014.

[6] International Energy Agency (IEA). Ensuring the Uninterrupted Availability of Energy Sources at an Affordable Price, 2017. (accessed on 23 April 2018).

[7] Sekretariat Jenderal Dewan Energi Nasional [SJDEN]. Indonesia Energy Outlook Online Version 2016. Jakarta (ID), (accessed on 23 April 2018)

[8] Yulianto, B., Maarif, M.S., Wijaya, C. & Hardjomidjojo, H., Energy security scenario based on renewable resources: A case study of East Sumba, East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. International Journal of Administrative Science  &  Organization, 26(1), pp. 10–22, 2019. doi:10.20476/jbb.v26i1.10170

[9] Azmi, R. & Amir, H., Keuangan Ketahanan Energi: Konsep, Kebijakan dan Tantan- gan bagi Indonesia. Jakarta (ID): Info Risiko Fiskal, Pusat Pengelolaan Risiko Fiskal, BKF, Kementerian Keuangan Republik Indonesia, 1, pp. 4–5, 2014. https://www.djppr.

[10] World Energy Council, World Energy Trilemma Index 2018. https://www.worldenergy. org/assets/downloads/World-Energy-Trilemma-Index-2018.pdf (accessed on 8 april 2018)

[11] Barzola, J., Espinoza, M. & Cabrera, F., Analysis of hybrid solar/wind/diesel renew- able energy system for off-grid rural electrification. International Journal of Renewable Energy Research, 6(3), pp. 1146–1152, 2016.

[12] Stoms, D.M., Dashiell, S.L. & Davis, F.W., Siting solar energy development to mini- mize biological impacts. Renewable Energy, 57, pp. 289–298, 2013. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.renene.2013.01.055

[13] Kiesecker, J.M., Evans, J.S., Fargione, J., Doherty, K., Foresman Kunz, T.H., Nugle, D., Nibbelink, N.P. & Niemuth, N.D., Win-win for wind and wildlife: A vision to facilitate sustainable development. PLoS ONE, 6(4), 2011. https.//doi.10.1371/journal. pone.0017566

[14] California Public Utilities Commission, Renewable Energy Transmission Initiative (RETI) Phase 2A Final Report., 2009. RETI-1000-2009-001/RETI-1000-2009-001-F-REV2.PDF (accessed on 8 April 2018)

[15] Argonne National Laboratory, Resilience Measurement Index: An Indicator of Critical Infrastructure Resilience., 2013. pdf (accessed on 8 April 2018)

[16] Electricity Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT). Competitive Renewable Energy Zones Transmission Optimization Study, Texas: Technical report, Electricity Reliabil- ity Council of Texas, 2008. (accessed on 2 March 2018)

[17] Hermann, S., Miketa, A., & Fichaux, N., Estimating the renewable energy potential in Africa – A GIS-based approach, IRENA-KTH working paper, Abu Dabi (SA): Technical report, International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), 2014. publications/2014/Aug/Estimating-the-Renewable-Energy-Potential-in-Africa-A-GIS- based-approach (accessed on 2 Mar 2018)

[18] Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Strategic search for SA’s best wind and sun, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, 2014.

[19] Rijanto, M.W. & Armawi, A., Peran PEMDA dan Masyarakat dalam Pengembangan Energi Alternatif Terbarukan untuk mendukung ketahanan energi (Studi di Kabupaten Sumedang, Jawa Barat), Jurnal Ketahanan Nasional, 16(3), pp. 25–51, 2011. https://

[20] Popescu, M.F., The economics and finance of energy security. Procedia Economics and Finance, 27, pp. 467–473, 2015.

[21] Kanchana, K. & Unesaki, H., ASEAN energy security: An indicator-based assessment, Energy Procedia., 56, pp. 163–171, 2014.

[22] Kulkarni, S.H., Anil, T.R. & Gowdar, R.D., Wind energy development in India and a methodology for evaluating performance of wind farm clusters. Journal of Renewable Energy, 2016, pp.1–11, 2016.

[23] Hwang, C.L. & Yoon, K., Multiple Attribute Decision Making: Methods and Applica- tions, Springer-Verlag: New York, 1981.

[24] Yuniarti, S., Sistem Pendukung Keputusan Penentuan Prioritas Media Promosi Meng- gunakan Fmadm Dengan Metode Simple Additive Weighting (Studi kasus: STMIK Profesional Makassar), Program Studi Ilmu Komputer Universitas Gadjah Mada Yog- yakarta.Yogyakarta (ID): UGM, Unpublished Thesis, 2011.

[25]  Maarif, S.M. & Tanjung, H., Manajemen Operasi, PT. Grasindo, Jakarta. 2003.

[26] Eswarlal, V.K., Dey, P.K. & Shankar, R., Enhanced renewable energy adoption for sustainable development in India: Interpretive structural modeling approach. World Renewable Energy Congress-Sweden, Linkoping, Sweden. May 2011.

[27] Syahni, D., Program Listrik Energi Terbarukan Sumba, Bagaimana Perkembangannya, bagaimana-perkembangannya/ (accessed on: 1 October 2018).

[28] Jenne, S., Chana, G., Frankenbergerb, R. & Gabelb, M., What drives states to support renewable energy? The Energy Journal, 33(2), pp. 1–12, 2012.

[29] Ansari, M.F., Kharb, R.K., Luthra, S., Simmi, S.L. & Chaterji, S., Analysis of barriers to implement solar power instalations in India using Interpretive Structural Modeling Technique. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 27, pp. 163–174. 2013. https://

[30] Rahardjo, I., & Fitriana, I., Analisis Potensi Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Surya di Indo- nesia. Strategi Penyediaan Listrik Nasional dalam Rangka Mengantisipasi Pemnafaatan PLTN Batubara Skala Kecil, dan Energi Terbarukan. bppt/publish/pltkcl/plrahard.pdf, pp. 43–52, 2013.

[31] Millenium Challenge Account [MCA], Akses Listrik Bersih 500 kWp untuk Desa- desa Terpencil di Sumba Timur,, 2018.

[32] Fauzi, A.R. & Sugita, M.R.P., Studi Impementasi Smart Grid dengan Penetrasi Hybrid Renewable Energy di Provinsi Nusa Tenggara Timur. Presented at Konferensi Smart Grid Indonesia, 2016.