Regional goods delivery fulfils an essential socio-economic function, in particular, in dense urbanized areas in countries like the netherlands. shippers (producers or traders), transport service providers, businesses and private households favour road transport, because of logistic and financial reasons. Delivery and pick-up vehicles are mainly powered by internal combustion engines (ice). Ice is a major source of ambient air pollution by NOx and PM10 and of global warming (CO2). More recent and well-maintained engines have much lower emissions of noX and PM10 than older and less well maintained ones, but their CO2-emission has not been reduced as much. with (local) freight transport growing exponentially, these emissions are likely to rise. The aim of the paper is to estimate how a combination of logistic, technical and policy choices may reduce emissions of CO2, NOX and PM10. The authors follow an integrative, interdisciplinary approach, because the past has taught that alignment of decisions by companies and government is inevitable to effectively deal with the root causes of these emissions. The main research question is as follows: what is needed to reduce the key emissions by regional goods delivery? This was addressed by literature analysis and micro simulation. The latter was used to compare the emissions of diesel, CNG and electricity to power trucks and truck-vans combinations in a region to inner-city delivery scenario. CNG is currently the better option in terms of emissions for the whole trip, largely because of the dutch grey electric power mix. Replacing the city leg of the trip by vans leads to more emissions, more vehicles, higher parking needs and logistic complexity. full electric trucks and vans cut out the local air pollution, which is beneficial, but not the emissions by power plants. a green(er) electric power mix is necessary to go to zero emission regional goods delivery.
CO2-emission, fuel consumption, goods delivery, practical implications, technology
 TLN, Transport in cijfers 2016, Zoetermeer.
 OECD, Going digital: The future of work for women, www.oecd.org/employment/Going-Digital-the-Future-of-Work-for-Women.pdf July 2017.
 Creutzig, F., Jochem, P. & Edelenbosch, O.Y., Transport: A roadblock to climate changemitigation. Science, 350(6263), pp. 912–913, 2015. EPA, Carbon pollution from climate change, EPA, Transport and Climate Change.pdf, 17 November 2017. Chapman, L., Transport and climate change: a review. Journal of Transport Geography, 15(5), pp. 354–367, September 2007.
 Cohen, A.J., Anderson, H.R. & Ostro, B., e.a. Chapter 17 Urban air pollution, www.who.int/publications/cra/chapters/volume2/1353-1434.pdf
 Bal, F. & Vleugel J.M., Heavy-duty trucks and new engine technology: impact on fuel consumption, emissions and trip cost. International Journal of Energy Production and Management, 3(3), pp. 167–178, 2018.
 ERTRAC , Urban freight research roadmap, www.ertrac.org/uploads/documentsearch/id36/ERTRAC _Alice_Urban_Freight.pdf, November 2014.
 McKinnon, A., Edwards, J., Piecyk, M. & Palmer, A., Traffic congestion, reliability and logistical performance: A multi-sectoral assessment, Logistic Research Centree, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, www.greenlogistics.org/SiteResources/df1ca9ef-6bb4-4338-b0d129bd5a27be24_LRN%202008%20%28Congestion%20-%20 Reliability%20study%29%20-%20final%20paper.pdf
 EU, Transport emissions, A European strategy for low-emission mobility, https://ec.europa.eu/clima/policies/transport_en
 Bektas, T., Crainic, T.G. & van Woensel, T., From managing urban freight to smartcity logistic networks, CIRRELT , Québec, www.cirrelt.ca/DocumentsTravail/CIRRELT-2015-17.pdf, May 2015. See also MDS Transmodal Ltd. and CTL, Study on urban freight transport, EC DG MOVE , April 2012, ec.europa.eu/transport/sites/transport/files/themes/urban/studies/doc/2012-04-urban-freight-transport.pdf
 Rushton, A., Croucher, P. & Baker, P., The Handbook of Logistics and Distribution Management, 2010.
 WHO, Global Urban Ambient Air Pollution Database (update 2016), www.who.int/phe/health_topics/outdoorair/databases/cities/en/J. M. Vleugel & F. Bal, Int. J. of Energy Prod. & Mgmt., Vol. 3, No. 4 (2018) 347
 Laseter, T., Tipping, A. & Duiven F., The rise of the last-mile exchange, PWC Strategy+ Business, (92), 30 July 2018.
 Vleugel, J.M. & Bal, F., The impact of a CO2 reduction target on the private car fleet in The Netherlands. In WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment, Vol. 215, eds. J. Casares, G. Passerini, & G. Perillo, WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment. ISSN 1743–3541. Southampton: WIT Press, pp. 109–120, 2018.
 UN, The Paris Agreement, unfccc.int/paris_agreement/items/9485.php
 OECD, Green Strategy Synthesis Report: Towards Green Growth, www.oecd.org, May 2011.
 ETC, Mission Possible, reaching net-zero carbon emissions from harder-to-abate sectors by mid-century, Energy Transitions Commission, November 2018. Mentions electrification of transport (via batteries or hydrogen) as serious alternative for fossil fuels. In several countries road tests are carried out (e.g. USA) and fuel networks are developed (e.g. Japan, Germany).
 Fontaras, G., Assessment of CO2 emissions from heavy duty vehicles, VECTO inputs overview, Ispra, 10/2013, www.theicct.org/sites/default/files/Fontaras%20ICCT_presentation.pdf
 A Dutch supermarket chain has bought its first FET with a driving range of 100 km on one full charge. It will be used for destinations of about 50 km around a regional DC. Brinck, Th. Van., Electrische vrachtwagen onmogelijk? Hallo Jumbo!, www.wattisduurzaam. nl/16965/featured/elektrische-vrachtwagen-onmogelijk- hallo-jumbo/, 18 December 2018.
 Ploos van Amstel, W., Citylogistiek: Op Weg naar een Duurzame stadslogistiek voor Aantrekkelijke Steden, Lectoral Speech, Hogeschool van Amsterdam, www.hva.nl%2Fbinaries%2Fcontent%2Fassets%2Fsubsites%2Fkc-techniek%2Fassets_1%2 Flectorale-rede-citylogistiek-ploos-van-amstel.pdf, 29 September 2015.
 Logistiek.nl, Stadsdistributie met schone trucks is duurzamer dan met bestelauto’s, www.logistiek.nl/distributie/nieuws/2018/04/163324-101163324
 Bonini, S. & Görner, S., The business of sustainability, Survey, www.mckinsey.com/business-functions/sustainability-and-resource-productivity/our-insights/the-businessofsustainability-mckinsey-global-survey-results, October 2011.
 Visser, M., Renewable Energy in the Netherlands, lecture, Hanze University of Applied Sciences, EnTranCe, Groningen.
 Eurostat, Share of energy from renewable sources, ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statisticsexplained/index.php?title=File:Figure_1 Share_of_energy_from_renewable_sources2004 -2016.png
 Wezel, B. van, Bie, Ronald van der, Electriciteit in Nederland, CBS, February 2015.
 This development is also expected in other countries, Beckman, K., Europe’s energy revolutionmarches on: one-third of power supply now renewable, energypost.eu/europes-energyrevolution-marches-one-third-power-supply-now-comes-renewables/ 17 June2015.
 Engerati, Europe’s electricity system—infrastructure lagging, www.engerati.com/transmission-and-distribution/article/energy-transition/europe%E2%80%99s-electricity-system-%E2%80%93-infrastructure, 28 January 2019.
 Gemeente Amsterdam, Amsterdam outlines new sustainability measures www.amsterdam. nl/bestuur-organisatie/organisatie/ruimte-economie/ruimte-duurzaamheid/making amsterdam/amsterdam-outlines/. Duurzaam Bedrijfsleven.nl, Gemeente Utrecht:‘Bevoorrading van binnenstad uitstootvrij in 2025’, https://www.duurzaambedrijfsleven.nl/logistiek/24781/gemeente-utrecht-bevoorrading-van-binnenstad-uitstootvrij-in-2025