The Impact of the Cost of Paid Parking for Private Cars and Public Transport Fare on the Structure of Urban Mobility

The Impact of the Cost of Paid Parking for Private Cars and Public Transport Fare on the Structure of Urban Mobility

Alexey Fadyushin Dmitrii Zakharov

Department of Road Transport Operation, Industrial University of Tyumen, Russia

Available online: 
| Citation



The experience of European cities shows that with the introduction of free-fare public transport, the share of public transport trips increases insignificantly, while the number of trips by individual transport, bicycle and on foot decreases. The most common way to reduce the number of trips by private cars is to introduce parking fees and regulate the tariff. The paper examines the impact of public transport fare paid parking fees on the transport demand structure. The structure of transport demand is determined using simulation modeling on a transport macro-model of a large city with a population of 800 thousand people that do not have off-street transport. The paper proposes a criterion for determining generalized costs of travel by different transport systems, which converts monetary costs into time fares. This made it possible to take into account the costs of movement by different types of transport (private and public transport, CarSharing, taxi, pedestrian and bicycle movements). With the introduction of paid parking fees up to 80 rubles per hour, the share of private transport trips reduced from 45.5% to 37.3%. With the introduction of free public transport, private transport trips share reduced to 39.9% with a significant increase in the costs of the municipal budget.


fare public transport, paid parking, public transport, transport demand, transport modelling, transport planning


[1] Delle Site, P. & F. Filippi, F., Effectiveness of public transport priorisation. WIT Transactions on The Built Environment, 18, pp. 395–402, 1995. DOI: 10.2495/ UT950451.

[2] Schoeman, C.B., International perspectives on transportation and urban form integration. International Journal of Transport Development and Integration, 1(1), pp. 1–15, 2017. DOI: 10.2495/TDI-V1-N1-1-15.

[3] Gandia, R.M., Antonialli, F., Oliveira, J.R., Sugano, J.Y., Nicolai, I., Oliveira, I.R.C., Willingness to use MaaS in a developing country. International Journal of Transport Development and Integration, 5(1), pp. 57–68, 2021. DOI: 10.2495/TDI-V5-N1-57-68.

[4] Zakharov, D. & Fadyushin, A., Changes in the structure of urban mobility with the development of infrastructure for public transport and cyclists in cities. WIT Transactions on the Built Environment, 200, pp. 49–60, 2020. DOI: 10.2495/UT200051.

[5] Huan, N., Yao, E., Fan, Y. & Wang, Z. Evaluating the environmental impact of bus signal priority at intersections under hybrid energy consumption conditions. Energies, 12(23), pp. 4555, 2019. DOI: 10.3390/en12234555.

[6] Desta, R. & Tóth, J. Simulating the performance of integrated bus priority setups with microscopic traffic mockup experiments. Scientific African, 11, e00707, 2021. DOI: 10.1016/j.sciaf.2021.e00707.

[7] Tomanek, R., Free-fare public transport in the concept of sustainable urban mobility. Transport Problems, 12, pp. 95–105, 2017. DOI: 10.20858/

[8] Štraub, D. & Jaroš, V. Free fare policy as a tool for sustainable development of public transport services. Human Geographies, 13(1), pp. 45–59, 2019. DOI: 10.5719/ hgeo.2019.131.3.

[9] Cats, O., Susilo, Y.O. & Reimal, T., The prospects of fare-free fare public transport: evidence from Tallinn. Transportation, 44, pp. 1083–1104, 2017.

[10] Cats, O., Reimal, T. & Susilo, Y., Evaluating the impacts of fare-free fare public transport policy: the case of Tallinn, Estonia. Transportation Research Record, 2415, pp. 89–96, 2014.

[11] Grzelec, K. & Jagiełło, A., The effects of the selective enlargement of fare-free fare public transport. Sustainability (Switzerland), 12(16), pp. 6390, 2020. DOI: 10.3390/ SU12166390.

[12] Dewita, Y., Burke, M. & Yen, B.T.H., The relationship between transport, housing and urban form: Affordability of transport and housing in Indonesia. Case Studies on Transport Policy, 8(1), pp. 252–262, 2020. DOI: 10.1016/j.cstp.2019.01.004.

[13] Zakharov D. & Fadyushin A., The efficiency of some activities for the development of urban infrastructure for public transport, cyclists and pedestrians. International Journal of Transport Development and Integration, 5(2), pp. 136–139, 2021. DOI: 10.2495/ TDI-V5-N2-136-149.

[14] Pearce, D.M., Matsunaka, R., Oba, T. & Yamamoto, S., Utilising dedicated pedestrian networks to understand the relationship between accessibility and pedestrian density in Asian cities. International Journal of Transport Development and Integration, 5(2), pp. 150–161, 2021. DOI: 10.2495/TDI-V5-N2-150-161.

[15] Hodge, D.C., Orrell III, J.D., & Strauss, T.R. (1994). Fare-free Policy: Costs, Impacts on Transit Service and Attainment of Transit System Goals. Report Number WA-RD 277.1. Washington State Department of Transportation

[16] Storchmann, K., Externalities by automobiles and fare-free transit in Germany – a paradigm shift? Journal of Public Transportation, 6(4), pp. 89–105, 2003.

[17] Rye, T. & Mykura, W., Concessionary bus fare for older people in Scotland – are they achieving their objectives? Journal of Transport Geography, 17, pp. 451–456, 2009.

[18] Candia, S., Pirlone, F. & Spadaro, I., Sustainable urban mobility and urban safety and security: A case study of the city centre of Genoa, Italy. WIT Transactions on the Built Environment, 182, pp. 187–198, 2019. DOI: 10.2495/UT180181.

[19] Jacyna, M., Wasiak, M., Kłodawski, M. & Gołȩbiowski, P., Modelling of bicycle traffic in the cities using VISUM. Procedia Engineering, 187, pp. 435–441, 2017. doi:10.1016/j.proeng.2017.04.397.

[20] Arliansyah, J., Prasetyo, M.R. & Kurnia, A.Y., Planning of city transportation infrastructure based on macro simulation model. International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology, 7(4), pp. 1262–1267, 2017. DOI: 10.18517/ijaseit.7.4.2444.

[21] Ramli, M.I., Runtulalo, D., Yatmar, H. & Mangessi, A., An estimation of origindestination matrices for a public transport network in Makassar using macrosimulation visum. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 875(1), pp. 012027, 2020. DOI:10.1088/1757-899X/875/1/012027.

[22] PTV AG, PTV Visum Manual. Available online: VISUM_18_ENG/ (accessed on 11 May 2021).

[23] Yakimov M.R., Transport planning: creating transport models of cities: monograph. Logos: Moscow, 188 p, 2013.

[24] Yandex.Taxi, Taxi price. Available online: (accessed on 11 May 2021)

[25] Price.Auto, Estimating the cost of car ownership. Available online: calculator/tco/ (accessed on 11 May 2021).

[26] Fadyushin, A. & Zakharov, D., Changes in the structure of urban mobility with the development of public transport. WIT Transactions on the Built Environment, 204, pp. 283–289, 2021. DOI: 10.2495/UT210231.