This paper discusses the needs for risk analysis in industrial enterprises. Several major points of concern are raised. The fi rst topic is risk communication and the inclusion of feedback from involved parties. This also includes openness from top management concerning ‘bad news’ and its effect on project work. The second topic is the importance of thorough risk analytical work including hazard identifi cation, risk analysis, risk evaluation and subsequent management of risk-reducing measures. This paper suggests that risk analysis is an important tool for project management, highlighting the importance of paying early attention to issues arising in a project before they further escalate to more serious events.
This paper brings up important topics of risk management and offers scenarios of how different elements can affect project management. We question whether industry, and especially the oil and gas industry, is moving in the right direction of conducting proper risk management and whether the risk analytical work is turning into a ‘numbers game’ and a pro forma activity.
This paper focuses on the integration of risk management and project management, thereby risk analysis can be a powerful tool for project management, helping it to succeed in transferring the company into a high reliability organization.
Human and organizational factors in risk analysis, issue management, integration of risk analysis and project management, risk analysis of project construction phases, role of the risk analyst
 Pate-Cornell, E. & Rettedal, W., Probabilistic analysis of the effect of resource c onstraints on system safety: towing failures during the construction of concrete platforms. Proc. 7th International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference (ISOPE), Honolulu, May 1997.
 Trbojevic, V., Bellamy, L., Gudmestad, O.T., Aarum, T. & Rettedal, W.K., Assessment of risk in the design phase of an offshore project. Proc. Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering, OMAE-96, Vol. II, pp. 431–435, Florence, June 1996.
 Gudmestad, O.T., Rettedal, W., Aarum, T. & Vegge, A., Use of risk analysis in offshore construction projects. Proceedings OMAE 94, Vol. 1, pp. 417–432, Houston, February 1994.
 Gudmestad, O.T. & Rettedal, W.K., Use of quantitative risk analysis for decision m aking support during fabrication and installation of deep water facilities. Paper 12.2, Proc. Deep Offshore Technology Conference, Stavanger, September 1999.
 Gudmestad, O.T., Risk assessment tools for use with marine operations. Journal of Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering, 124, pp. 153–161, 2002. doi: http://dx.doi.
 Bea, R.G., Human and organizational factors in safety of engineered systems. Proc. American Society of Safety Engineers Region III and Texas Safety Association P rofessional Development Conference, Galveston, United States of America, August 3–5 1998.
 Bea, R.G., Performance shaping factors in reliability analysis of design of offshore structures. Journal of Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering, 122, pp. 163–172, 2000. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/1.1287507
 Roberts, K.H., Some characteristics of one type of high reliability organization. Organization Science, 1(2), pp. 160–176, 1990. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/orsc.1.2.160
 Gudmestad, O.T. & Gordon, R., The role of human and organizational factors (HOF) in the fabrication, installation and modifi cation (FIM) phases of offshore facilities. Proc. Int. Workshop on Human Factors in Offshore Operations, pp. 182–237, New Orleans, December 1996.
 Trbojevic, V. & Gudmestad, O.T., I ncorporating human, management and organizational barriers in risk assessment of offshore marine operations. Proc. Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering, OMAE 2005-67534, (Paper on CD, ISBN 0791837599), Athens, Greece, June 2005.
 Dechy, N., Dien, Y., Funnemark, E., Roed-Larsen, S., Stoop, J., Valvisto, T. & Vetere Arellano, A.L., Results and lessons learned from the ESReDA’s Accident Investigation Working Group: Introducing article to “Safety Science” special issue on “Industrial Events Investigation”. Safety Science, 50(6), pp. 1380–1391, 2012. doi: http://dx.doi. org/10.1016/j.ssci.2009.10.004
 Dechy, N., Rousseau, J.M. & Jeffroy, F., Learning lessons from accidents with a h uman and organizational factors perspective: defi ciencies and failures of operating experience feedback systems. Presented at EUROSAFE 2012, available at http://www. eurosafe-forum.org/userfi les/W_5_%20slides_Learning%20lessons-Dechy-RousseauJeffroy_20111104.pdf
 Dien, Y., Dechy, N. & Guillaume, E., Accident investigation: from searching direct causes to fi nding in-depth causes - problem of analysis or/and of analyst? Safety Science, 50(6), pp. 1398–1407, 2012. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2011.12.010
 Rettedal, W. & Gudmestad, O.T., Acceptance criteria for risk in offshore construction projects. Proc. Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering, OMAE, Vol. 1-B, pp. 67–75, Copenhagen, 1995.
 Trbojevic, V. & Gudmestad, O.T., Risk analysis of marine operations in Arctic waters.
Proc. POAC, paper 2009-088, Luleå, Sweden, June 2009.
 Aven, T. & Vinnem, J.E., Risk Management, With Applications from the Offshore Petroleum Industry, Springer Verlag: New York, 2007.
 Vinnem, J.E., Risk analysis and risk acceptance criteria in the planning processes of hazardous facilities - a case of an LNG plant in an urban area. Reliability Engineering & System Safety, 95(6), pp. 662–670, 2010. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j. ress.2010.02.005
 Stølsnes, R.R., Gudmestad, O.T. & Bea, R.G., On the importance of human and organizational factors in design, construction and installation of engineered systems. Proc. ISOPE 01, Vol. IV, pp. 465–474, Stavanger, June 2001.
 Gudmestad, O.T. & Stølsnes, R.R., Implementation of human factors analysis in QRA and SRA. Invited paper presented at 2nd Int. ASRANet Colloquium, Barcelona, July 2004.
 Shammas, M. & Gudmestad, O.T., Managing human and organizational factors in the construction and marine industries. Advances in safety and reliability, Proceedings “Esrel”, pp. 1811–1816, Gdansk, 2005.
 Levi, L., Guidance on Work-Related Stress: Spice of Life or Kiss of Death? European Commission, Belgium, European Communities, 2002.
 Castenfors, K. & Svedin, L., Crisis communication: learning from the 1998 LPG near miss in Stockholm. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 88, pp. 235–254, 2001. doi: http:// dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3894(01)00269-2
 Hastings, C., Building the culture of organizational networking: managing projects in the new organization. International Journal of Project Management, 13, pp. 259–263, 1995. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0263-7863(95)00029-P
 Deepwater Horizon Study Group, Final Report on the Investigation of the Macondo Well Blowout, University of Berkeley: USA, 2011. http://ccrm.berkeley.edu/pdfs_papers/bea_pdfs/dhsgfi nalreport-march2011-tag.pdf
 Lakats, L., Gudmestad, O.T., Skjæveland, H., Rettedal, W. & Gausel, E., Managing Offshore platform construction taking into account “bad news”, A case study. Paper WAO6.4 Presented at the Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences, National Meeting, Montreal, Quebec, April 26–29, 1998.
 Dejours, C., Contributions of the psychodynamic analysis of work situations to the study of organizational crises. Organization Environment, 7(2), pp. 77–89, 1993. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/108602669300700202
 Pate-Cornell, E. & Dillon, R., Probabilistic risk analysis for the NASA space shuttle: a brief history and current work. Reliability Engineering & System Safety, 74(3), pp. 345–352, 2001. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0951-8320(01)00081-3
 Hall, J.L., Columbia and challenger: organizational failure at NASA. Space Policy, 19, pp. 239–247, 2003. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.spacepol.2003.08.013
 Skjæveland, H., Knudsen, A. & Nyborg, A.,Technical challenges in the design and construction of the Troll gravity base structure. Presented at the 4th International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference, Osaka, Japan, April 10–15, 1994.