The purpose of this paper is to use the case of Iran to examine the basic premises of the ecological modernization (EM) and de-modernization (DM) theories with regard to agricultural extension policies to generate a green theory for agricultural extension. We argue that extension activities do not promote sustainability, so that technologies presented by extension are unsustainable. It is necessary to rethink seriously the activities, missions, and efforts of extension. It can be argued that agricultural extension should be reinvented. Two competing polar conceptual paths for agricultural extension are presented by EM and DM theories. These two paths are used to reconstruct the theoretical basis of agricultural extension.
de-modernization, ecological modernization, green extension theory, Iran
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