This article investigates in which way a lidar sensor can be used in a train-borne localization system. The idea is to sense infrastructure elements like rails and turnouts with the lidar sensor and to recognize those objects with a template-matching approach. A requirement analysis for the lidar sensor is presented and a market review based on these requirements is performed. Furthermore, an approach for template matching on lidar scans to recognize infrastructure objects is introduced and its empirical performance is demonstrated based on measurements taken in a light rail environment. The overall goal of the integration of lidar sensors is to fill the sensory gap of existing train localization approaches, which are able to determine the exact, track-selective train position only if highly accurate position measurements from satellite navigation systems are available, which is often not the case. By integrating a lidar sensor, the localization system becomes more diverse, more robust, and can tolerate missing or faulty measurements from the satellite navigation system
lidar sensor, rail detection, train-borne localization.
 Theeg, G. & Vlasenko, S. (eds.), Railway Signalling & Interlocking: International Compendium, Eurailpress, 2009.
 Stanley, P. (ed.), ETCS for engineers, Eurailpress, 2011.
 Albanese, A., Labbiento, G., Marradi, L. & Venturi, G., The RUNE project: the integrity performances of GNSS-based railway user navigation equipment, Proc. Joint Railway Conf., pp. 211–218, 2005. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/rrcon.2005.186082
 Jiang, Z., Digital route model aided integrated satellite navigation and low-cost inertial sensors for high-performance positioning on the railways, PhD thesis, University College London, 2010.
 Hensel, S., Hasberg, C. & Stiller, C., Probabilistic rail vehicle localization with eddy current sensors in topological maps. IEEE Trans. of Intell. Transp. Syst., 12(4), pp. 1525–1536, 2011. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TITS.2011.2161291
 Rahmig, C., Lüddecke, K. & Lemmer, K., Tunnels and bridges as observable landmarks within a modified multi-hypothesis based map-matching algorithm for train positioning. Proc. European Navigation Conf., 2012.
 Rahmig, C., Johannes, L. & Lüddecke, K., Detecting track events with a laser scanner for using within a modified multi-hypothesis based map-matching algorithm for train positioning, Proc. European Navigation Conf., 2013.
 Heirich, O., Robertson, P. & Strang, T., RailSLAM – localization of rail vehicles and mapping of geometric railway tracks, Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Robotics and Automation, pp. 5192–5199, 2013. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/icra.2013.6631322
 Albrecht, T., Lüddecke, K. & Zimmermann, J., A precise and reliable train positioning system and its use for automation of train operation, Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Intell. Rail Transp., pp. 134–139, 2013. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/icirt.2013.6696282
 Lauer, M. & Stein, D., Algorithms and concepts for an onboard train localization system for safety-relevant services, Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Intell. Rail Transp., pp. 65–70, 2013. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/icirt.2013.6696269
 Engelberg, T. & Mesch, F., Eddy current sensor system for non-contact speed and distance measurement of rail vehicles. Computers in Railways VII, eds. J. Allan, R. Hill, C. Brebbia, G. Sciutto & S. Sone, WIT Press: Southampton, pp. 1261–1270, 2000.
 Lauer, M. & Stein, D., A train localization algorithm for train protection systems of the future. IEEE Trans. Intell. Transp. Syst., 16(2), pp. 970–979, 2015.
 Stein, D., Spindler, M. & Lauer, M., Lidar sensors for detecting railway infrastructure and their usage in train-borne localization systems, Poster: MoLaS Technology Workshop, Freiburg, 2014.
 Mesch, F., Puente León, F. & Engelberg, T., Train-based location by detecting rail switches. Computers in Railways VII, eds. J. Allan, R. Hill, C. Brebbia, G. Sciutto & S. Sone, WIT Press: Southampton, pp. 1251–1260, 2000.
 Stein, D., Lauer, M. & Spindler, M., An analysis of different sensors for turnout detection for train-borne localization systems. Computers in Railways XIV: Railway Engineering Design and Optimization, eds. C. Brebbia, N. Tomii, P. Tzieropoulos & J. Mera, WIT Press: Southampton, WIT Transactions on The Built Environment, vol. 135, pp. 827–838, 2014.
 Blug, A., Baulig, C., Wölfelschneider, H. & Höfler, H., Fast fiber coupled clearance profile scanner using real time 3D data processing with automatic rail detection, Proc. IEEE Intell. Veh. Symp., pp. 658–663, 2004. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ivs.2004.1336462
 Kern, F., Marktübersicht Terrestrische Laserscanner (TLS) (market survey terrestrial laser scanning (TLS)) – Version 9, 2010.
 Oppenheim, A.V., Schafer, R.W. & Buck, J.R., Discrete-Time Signal Processing, 2nd edn., Prentice Hall, 1999.
 Hackel, T., Stein, D., Maindorfer, I., Lauer, M. & Reiterer, A., Track detection in 3D laser scanning data of railway infrastructure, Proc. IEEE Int. Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conf., pp. 693–698, 2015. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/i2mtc.2015.7151352