Effects of Travel Motivation on Image Destination: Najaf City as a Case Study

Effects of Travel Motivation on Image Destination: Najaf City as a Case Study

Zuhier Abbas Azeez

College of Tourism Sciences, Al-Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad 10052, Iraq

Corresponding Author Email: 
30 October 2021
4 December 2021
17 December 2021
Available online: 
28 February 2022
| Citation

© 2022 IIETA. This article is published by IIETA and is licensed under the CC BY 4.0 license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).



Travel motives are one of the most important subjects that has engaged academics since the 1960s in their quest to understand the reasons that lead tourists to decide to travel and how to pick tourist destinations. Knowing the travel motivations accurately leads to a clear understanding of the tourist's behaviour and the best tourist attractions, noting that the importance of such knowledge lies in the fact that it allows for meeting the needs and desires of the tourist that correspond to the travel motivations. The purpose of this study is to examine the reasons for travel and how travellers choose certain tourist sites from a variety of possibilities. Additionally, researchers are examining how to address the requirements and desires of tourists who have chosen this destination. The study used Najaf, Iraq, as a case study to analyse the reasons for visiting the city and how to instil a positive image of the place in the minds of people who come and return. The results of study confirmed the reality of the impact of the image of the destination on attracting tourist destinations and encouraging tourists to visit it. Finally, to achieve a favourable tourist image, the combination of the cognitive and emotional aspects of the destination image is an influential factor.


favourable tourist image, travel motives, destination image, Najaf, tourist's desires, tourist destination

1. Introduction

Since the 1960s, tourism academics have paid close attention to travel motivation in order to better understand and anticipate variables that impact travel decision-making [1]. Many researchers have attempted to explain issues such as, "Why do individuals travel?" and "Why do travellers choose a certain destination?" [2].

Since travel motivation refers to a group of demands that push people towards tourism activities [3, 4], it is an important topic in tourism research. Because of this, travellers have shifted their travel patterns in order to meet their needs, while their travel decisions are based on destination attributes [5, 6]. Understanding tourist motivations often results in an inability to increase tourists' enjoyment; additionally, it creates it possible to attract and retain more [7]. Tourist motives are continuously changing as a result of today's globalization. Tourists are increasingly looking for novel experiences that meet their evolving requirements [8]. An examination of tourist motivation is therefore crucial for destinations in order to understand tourist destination choice and to improve the destination image [9].

The value of a tourist destination's image is generally accepted, since it influences visitor behaviour in a variety of ways. First and foremost, it impacts the choice of vacation place. Given that visitors often have little awareness of tourist locations they have not before visited, image plays a crucial role in that tourism destinations with stronger, positive, and identifiable images are more likely to be picked by tourists. Second, it impacts post-decision behaviour, such as tourist satisfaction and willingness to return in the future. Following a vacation, individuals create judgments about a tourist location's ability to deliver experiences that meet their requirements and match the picture they had of the place [10].

Understanding travel motivation is thus a necessary prerequisite for comprehending tourist destination selection and the complete decision-making process. Furthermore, research on travel motivation might help tourism sites understand how to improve their products to satisfy tourists [11]. Trip motivations influence travellers' cognitive image, which interacts with emotional image to shape individuals' expectations about travel locations [12].

Actually, understanding the motivations for travel enables tourism specialists to provide all the services and facilities for tourists in tourist destinations in order to achieve tourist satisfaction. The travel motivations of tourists must be compatible with the image of a positive tourist destination, because the more positive the image of the destination, the greater the motivation for tourist travel. Therefore, this study looks at the motivations for travel and how tourists select specific tourist destinations from among other options. In addition to studying how to meet the needs and desires of tourists as a result of choosing this destination.

The study considered Najaf city, Iraq, as a case study to examine the motivations behind traveling to visit the city and how to create a new good image of the destination in the minds of visitors who come and return to the city.

A survey was done empirically in the Iraqi city of Najaf. A questionnaire was produced by an analysis of comparable previous research investigations, and the questions were all descriptive in character. The researcher used the Cronbach's Alpha coefficient of reliability to demonstrate the dependability of data collected from the Najaf provincial tourist office. While the Confirmatory Factorial Analysis was used to verify the questionnaire paragraphs pertaining to the effect of travel incentives on destination image. Additionally, the Confirmatory Factorial Analysis was paired with a descriptive analysis of the respondents' replies based on the weighted mean, standard deviation, and relative significance for each questionnaire paragraph.

2. Factors for Travelling

2.1 Motivation and the definition of travel motivation

The term "motivation" is derived from the Latin word movëre, which translates as the verb "to move" [13], which defines motivation as the driving force behind all activity [14]. Motivation is defined as "the urge that pushes an individual to conduct in a particular way in order to achieve a desired outcome" [15].

The needs that drive a person to participate in a tourist activity are referred to as travel motivation [16]. Travel motivation is described as a set of characteristics that drive a person to participate in tourism activities [17]. Travel motives are the reasons for travelling and are thought to explain why tourists prefer a certain travel type and pick one location over another [18]. Motivation has evolved into a notion that serves as a catalyst for travel behaviour and influences several elements of tourist activity [19].

  1. The reasons for travelling or why you are travelling.

  2. The exact location.

  3. The outcomes or general pleasure with the trip.

2.2 Importance of travel motivation

In recent years, both the tourism industry and visitors have been impacted in different ways; individuals have become more aware of how to use their vacation time and determine the experiences they want to enjoy. Why do they keep moving from place to place? Developers must know about the elements affecting all decisions about the subject of tourists. It is critical to comprehend the motivating elements affecting their decisions in order to understand the behaviour patterns of tourism sector customers, especially in a highly competitive environment [20].

Many researchers have concluded that in order to understand why tourists take certain trips, we must first look at their motivations. If they are highly motivated to travel, they are more likely to be engaged in their destinations, to learn about where they want to go, and to make plans to go there. However, if they had no desire to travel, the tourism industry wouldn't exist [21]. Journey motivation is a critical stage that occurs before the actual travel. Additionally, researchers believed there is a strong correlation between motivation and destination choices [22].

Tourist motivation is an enticing factor that encourages visitors to visit tourist locations; knowing tourist motivation enables one to raise the level of pleasure or sense of enjoyment experienced by tourists [23, 24]. Understanding the driving reasons behind tourist behaviour might assist service providers in improving and adjusting their offerings to make them more appealing to target tourists [14].

The significance of comprehending visitor motivation [25].

  1. Recognizing tourist motives will pave the path for the development of better products and services.

  2. Tourist happiness with tourism experiences is inextricably linked to their initial motivations.

  3. Before a destination marketer can comprehend visitor decision-making processes, reasons must first be recognized and prioritized.

2.3 Motivations and perspectives

Based on Page et al. [26] and Terblanche [27], there are six views on travel motivation:

  1. Travel as a response to what is lacking but desired - The tourist yearns for something novel or unusual that is not available in his or her local area.

  2. Response to motivation "Pull" a difference in individual visitor wants, requirements, and desires based on destination perception (pull factors).

  3. Fantasy motivation – Tourists may wish to travel to engage in activities or behaviors that are not culturally acceptable in their own country, such as gambling, drugs, or prostitution. Such acts are prohibited in the majority of nations, but not all. Therefore, the urge to travel to meet these motives may develop.

  4. Motivation as categorized purpose – The nature or purpose of the trip, for example, seeing friends and relatives, or the chance to engage in certain leisure activities, can constitute motivation to travel.

  5. Motivational and tourist experiences — Tourism sometimes entails visiting a previously unseen location. Tourists are inspired to travel by the experiences they expect to have in comparison to the ones offered in their own location.

  6. Motivation as self-definition and meaning – Understanding tourist motivation may be improved by seeing how visitors define and respond to their situations.

2.4 Travel motivation classifications

Numerous motivational categories are available in the current literature; three of these groups are discussed [28]. The first categorizes visitor motivations into two groups: The factors that influence a person's decision to travel. The factors that influence a person's decision to take a particular vacation, in a particular location, at a certain time. The second category of tourist motivation was [29] included:

  1. To visit a nation, I have never visited before.

  2. To see something unusual, something fresh and interesting that I don't typically see.

  3. To learn about civilizations other than my own.

The third category is more complicated, although it is widely acknowledged and utilized by professionals. The motivations are as follows [30, 31]:

  1. Psychological (relaxation, suntan, exercise and health, sex).

  2. Emotional (nostalgia, romance, adventure, escape, fantasy, spiritual needs).

  3. Personal (visits to family and friends, making new acquaintances).

  4. Personal growth (raising the level of knowledge, learning a new skill).

  5. Star rating (fashion, exclusivity, getting a good offer).

  6. Culture (sightseeing, experience of other cultures).

2.5 Travel motivation theories

To describe visitors' decision-making process and behavior, a number of motivation theories have been developed, including tourism motivation theories [32]:

  1. According to Maslow, human needs are organized into a hierarchy, from most important to least significant. Maslow's hierarchy of needs prioritizes physiological requirements, safety requirements, social requirements, self-esteem requirements, and self-actualization requirements. According to the idea, once a need is met, it no longer serves as a motivation, and the individual will attempt to meet the next most essential need [33].

  2. Dann and Crompton highlight two general motivations for tourism: push and pull forces. The well-documented technique of using push and pull variables to investigate visitors' motivations has a broad scope. Pull factors are extra-tangible elements, such as an appealing event or place, that inspire people to visit, visit again, or stay in a hotel. At the same time, internal psychological pressures urge people to travel. To help inspire themselves, or another, an individual may choose from a variety of things, including the following factors: psychological characteristics, conditions of the environment, and the ability to believe in themselves. The push motivations and pull factors that Crompton (2005) identified. The motivations for leaving their home setting were motivated by the desire to explore, relax, gain status, regress, strengthen connections, and engage socially. Novelty and education were the two remaining characteristics that drew in consumers [34].

  3. The Sun Lust and Wanderlust Theory According to McIntosh et al. [35], the concepts of sun lust and wanderlust can explain the reasons why people travel. The term "sun lust" refers to tourists' attraction to locations that offer amenities that they do not have at home [36]. The term "wanderlust" refers to travelers' urge to travel from a familiar location to an unknown location.

  4. The Personal and Social Theory Based on research done by Mannell and Iso-Ahola [37], individuals tend to travel for social and personal reasons; those reasons have been described as the two primary motivations for travel. Personal benefits include: autonomy, feeling good about your abilities, challenge, learning, exploration, and relaxation. Rewards gained through social interactions are categorized as social benefits [38].

  5. Physical Motivation Theory, Status and Prestige Theory, Cultural Motivation Theory, and Impersonal Motivation Theory. The tourism incentive has four aspects, according to McIntosh et al. [35]: physical, cultural, interpersonal, and status and prestige. Physical motivation is closely related to a person's physiological health: physical rest, sports involvement, and a desire for beach leisure. Status and prestige motivation relates to tourists' self-esteem and personal growth [39], whereas cultural motivation refers to visitors' desire to learn about other nations' cultural activities. Interpersonal motivation refers to the desire of travellers to meet new people, visit friends or relatives, escape from the monotony of daily life, or make new acquaintances [38].

  6. The Theory of Inner and Outer Direction People travel for both inner-directed and outer-directed reasons, according to Zhang [39]. Inner-directed reasons mostly pertain to tourists' emotions, whereas outer-directed ones are cognitive in character [38].

3. The Destination Image

3.1 Definition of the destination image

Destination images, according to Garay Tamajón & Cànoves Valiente [40], may be described as mental imagery accumulating concerning travel experiences. In a nutshell, the destination image is an element of travellers' ideas, attitudes, and impressions about a location [41]. The totality of perceptions, beliefs, ideas, expectations, and sentiments acquired towards a location over time is referred to as the destination image [42].

3.2 The significance of destination image

In order to effectively promote the product and tourist attractions, it is necessary to maintain a desirable image of the location. Because of increasing competition, success in this situation depends on focusing on keeping people coming back to the location, as well as keeping them happy. Multiple studies demonstrate that a favourably perceived destination image is highly related to the choice of that specific location [43].

The image serves as a representation of the destination in the traveler's imagination and serves as a pre-taste of the destination; it influences the traveler's decision to choose a particular location as a vacation destination. Once a place is included in the evoked collection, its image is updated and contrasted to photos of alternative destinations [44]. When travellers have a positive image of a tourist site, it increases their desire to return to that location, even promoting it to family and coworkers [45].

According to Echtner and Ritchie [46], the image of tourist sites was conceptualized. Destination image may be thought of as both an attribute-based component and a holistic component. Furthermore, certain pictures of locations may be based on immediately observable or quantifiable qualities (e.g. scenery, attractions). While others may be based on more abstract, intangible characteristics (e.g. friendliness, safety) [47]. Furthermore, tourist locations must reassess their position in relation to other rivals in order to prepare for short-term demand shocks and long-term adjustments in visitor flows [48].

3.3 Destination image development

According to Manhasa et al. [49], the development of a destination may be described by the stages it goes through. There are two sub-phases in the "pre-tourism phase".

The locations visited and experienced in the first sub-phase were mostly for the purpose of visiting friends and family, or for business. The second sub-phase involves destination developers and local residents or community members conducting proactive research on visitor behavior in order to convince tourists to return not simply to see friends and family or companies, but also to enjoy the attractions the destination has to offer. Traditional clothing norms, social connections, working routines, eating customs, and lodgings all alter to provide tourists with a "memorable experience" of the place. A new "tourism management phase" was created following these events. Tourists' desires and expectations influence the creation of tourism products and services.

3.4 Elements of destination image

According to certain researchers, Ilban et al. [50] and Prayag [51], there are two major aspects of image; emotional and cognitive components:

  1. The cognitive aspect of a picture describes people's beliefs and facts about a location. The cognitive aspect is usually the outcome of assessing the people who reside in that location as well as the activities that take place there.

  2. Emotional component; it describes how individuals feel about a location. More specifically, the emotional picture of a place is about enjoying or disliking a location. People's emotional picture of a location, as well as their knowledge, ideas, and thoughts, can be considered to be linked to their cognitive image. The overall picture of a location can be discovered by observing its cognitive and emotional representations.

3.5 Components of the destination image

Tourist destination characteristics are considered as a collection of components that characterize a location as a tourist destination. It proposes that destinations include numerous components and they are grouped into six headings, dubbed 6A's framework after the first letter of each heading, namely [52]:

  1. Attractions include natural, handcrafted, and man-made structures, as well as unique events.

  2. The phrase "accessibility" applies to the whole transportation system, including terminals and vehicles.

  3. Amenities denote lodging, catering, shopping, and other tourism-related services.

  4. The pre-arranged packages by intermediaries and principals are presented by intermediaries.

  5. Activities refer to all of the activities that visitors can partake in when visiting a location; and lastly.

  6. Ancillary services include banking, telephones, post offices, and hospitals, among other things.

3.6 Classifications of the characteristics of the destination image

Experts in the field have classified the qualities that characterize a destination's image [53, 54]:

  1. Natural characteristics

  2. Fun and leisure possibilities

  3. Natural settings

  4. Public facilities

  5. Cultures, histories, and the arts

  6. Social environments

  7. Tourism infrastructure

  8. Economic and political aspects, and

  9. Atmospheric locations

3.7 Building destination image

According to Martins [55], there are three important variables that contribute to the development of a destination. First and foremost, word-of-mouth. If travellers share favorable word-of-mouth, it will be easy to create a strong image of a location. Second, media image creation. Finally, the policies and interests pursued by the governments of the destinations.

3.8 The importance of destination image in tourism marketing

The tourism organization's manipulation of destination images to affect destination selection and consumer behaviour is extensively documented. Understanding of the tourist image is crucial for destination positioning and distinction. The marketing value of image is that it allows an intangible product, such as a destination, to position itself against competitors. Product attributes are formed, and images become an artificially created differentiation. The goal of image promotion is to impart meaning on a product in order to boost demand.

Tourists have visions of a perfect location in their minds, which drives them to pick the place that promises to give them the most satisfaction. Tourists are more inclined to select the place with the best image. As a result, image is crucial in the destination selection process [56]. In an increasingly competitive market, destination marketers must gain a fuller understanding of the nature of the images held by both individuals and businesses in order to build more positive brand images and so boost the appeal of a destination [57].

External and internal qualities that contribute to a visitor's awareness serve to separate the image evaluation elements amongst venues that are competing for tourist decision-making behaviour [58]. Furthermore, the destination image is generated from a variety of sources of information, including direct experience, media messages, and purposeful promotional efforts carried out by the network of organizations engaged in the image-building process [59].

4. Statistical Analysis of the Research's Practical Aspects

The Cronbach's Alpha coefficient of reliability was utilized by the researcher to demonstrate the dependability of the data obtained from the Najaf provincial tourist office. While the Confirmatory Factorial Analysis was performed to validate the questionnaire paragraphs indicating the effect of travel incentives on destination image. The Confirmatory Factorial Analysis was also combined with a descriptive analysis of the respondents' responses using the weighted mean, standard deviation, and relative significance for each of the questionnaire paragraphs. Using the Amos v25 and SPSS v25 software, as well as the multiple linear regression approach, the researcher was ultimately able to establish the impact of travel motives and their three dimensions on destination image. The following were the findings:

4.1 Testing the measuring tool's reliability and validity

Table 1 revealed a Cronbach's Alpha value of (0.806) for each paragraph in the questionnaire, which is more than (0.700), confirming the presence of excellent reliability (stability) throughout the paragraphs of the questionnaire and for each of the study variables of interest (travel motivations, destination image).

Table 1. Reliability test results

Comment of the researcher

Cronbach's Alpha Coefficient Value


The presence of high stability (reliability) in the paragraphs of travel motivations


Travel motivations

Independent Variable

The presence of high stability (reliability) in the paragraphs of Destination image 


Destination image

Dependent Variable

The presence of high stability in the paragraphs of the questionnaire


All paragraphs of the questionnaire

Figure 1. A confirmatory factorial analysis chart (based on AMOS data) for the variables related to travel motives

Figure 2. Confirmatory Factorial Analysis chart for the variable of destination image (based on AMOS data)

The confirmatory factorial analysis demonstrated through Figure 1 and Table 2 how the paragraphs connected to the independent variable of travel motives were valid and really reflected that variable and that following the researchers' data fulfilled the requirements for using that approach. Similarly, Table 2 and Figure 2 demonstrated how the analysis demonstrated the validity (correct representation) of the paragraphs linked to the dependent variable of the destination image.

4.2 Descriptive analysis of the variable paragraph responses

The researcher offers an analysis and interpretation of the degree of replies to the questionnaire paragraphs, as shown in Table 3.

Table 4 shows that the overall (Weighted Mean) value for travel motivation paragraphs reached (3.8837), indicating that the level of importance of the research community's responses to the independent variable paragraphs was significantly agreeable (congruent), particularly because it fell within the category (from 3.4 to less than 4.2) within the Strength of Response Matrix, and with a standard deviation of (77.7%). These findings demonstrate how the majority of the sample participants agreed on the independent variable paragraphs.

The importance of the travel motives dimension had the highest degree of response, with a weighted arithmetic mean of (3.925), a standard deviation of (0.47434), and a relative importance of 78.5%. Meanwhile, the dimension of the role of classifications of travel motivations achieved the lowest level among the independent variable dimensions, as shown in Table 4, with a weighted arithmetic mean of (3.815), a standard deviation of (0.47585), and a relative importance of 76.3%, as shown in Figure 3.

Figure 3. Arithmetic mean distribution of the efficacy of travel motivations

Table 2. Findings of the confirmatory factorial analysis based on the strength of the response matrix


Indices of Congruence


Criterion of Acceptance

Value of indicator

Researcher's comment

Travel motivations


Destination image

The Relative Chi-Square

Less than 5



All the results of the


Factorial Analysis

were significant, and

thus the

paragraphs of the

questionnaire was

valid and best

represented the two

variables of the



Good of Fit Index (GFI)

The bigger the value of this index than 0.9, the higher the quality of this model



Root Mean square Error of Approximation (RMSEA)

If the value of the index is less than or equal

to 0.05, this indicates that the model exactly

matches the data, but if the value of the

index is between 0.05 and 0.08 indicates that

the model is closely congruent to the sample

data, otherwise the model is rejected



Normed Fit Index (NFI)

The value of the index is between zero and

one. The closer it gets to one the higher the

congruence is



Comparative Fit Index (CFI)

The value of the index is between zero and

one. The closer it gets to one the higher the

congruence is



Incremental Fit Index (IFI)

The value of the index is between zero and

one. The closer it gets to one the higher the

congruence is



Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI)

The value of the index is between zero and

one. The closer it gets to one the higher the

congruence is



Table 3. Paragraph response strength matrices

The Weighted Mean within the period

The agreeability in relation to the response to the questionnaire paragraphs

Level of response

From 1 to less than 1.8

Strongly disagree


From 1.8 to less than 2.6


From 2.6 to less than 3.4



From 3.4 to less than 4.2



From 4.2 to less than 5

Strongly agree

Table 4. The value of travel motives in relation to destination image


Variables and their dimensions

Weighted Mean

Standard Deviation

Relative Importance

Level of Response


The importance of travel motivations






Perspectives travel motivations






Classifications of travel motivations






travel motivations






Destination image development






Elements of destination image






destination image





According to Table 4, the weighted arithmetic mean for the destination image was (3.7940), indicating a level of importance for the sample responses to the dependent variable paragraphs that leaned towards congruency with a high rate of responsiveness, particularly that the value of the mean within the Strength of Response Matrix fell within the range (from 3.4 to less than 4.2), with a standard deviation of (0.4669). This indicates the existence of harmony in the responses of the sample with respect to the destination image, where relative importance reached (75.88%). The dependent variable is agreed upon by the majority of the research sample members. The results reveal that the majority of the sample participants agreed with the dependent variable's paragraphs. The dimensions of the dependent variable reached the highest level of response regarding the destination image development with a weighted arithmetic mean of (3.8125), a standard deviation of (0.45053), and a relative importance of (76.25%). Table 4 also shows how the elements of the destination image came with the lowest response between the two dimensions of the dependent variable, where the arithmetic mean reached (3.7754) with a standard deviation of (0.48327) and a relative importance of (75.51%).

4.3 Experimenting with the influence of travel motivations on destination image

The current research used multiple linear regression analysis to demonstrate the effect of the three dimensions of travel motives on destination image, and the following hypotheses were tested. The main hypothesis is that travel intentions have a statistically significant influence on destination image. This theory has given rise to three sub-hypotheses, which are as follows:

  1. That the significance of travel motives has a statistically significant impact on destination image.

  2. Perspectives on the reasons for travel have a statistically significant impact on the destination's image.

  3. Classifications of travel reasons have a statistically significant influence on destination image.

From Table 5, we can conclude that the first, second, and third sub-hypotheses are accepted with a confidence rate of 95%, with the calculated F values for each of them being (27,670, 65,654, and 33,565), respectively, and all of them being statistically significant because they are greater than the F tabular value of (4.0847) at the significance level of (0.05), and especially that they correspond to (0.000). As a result, there is a substantial effect on the relevance of travel motives on the destination image. Similarly, there was a discernible influence of perspectives on travel motives on the destination picture, and there was a discernible effect of classifications of travel motivations on the destination image.

Table 5. Testing the sub-hypotheses





β Regression Coefficient

R2% Coefficient of Determination

F – Test

Researcher's comment

Independent variable

Dependent variable

F value calculated

Probability Value

First sub-hypothesis

The importance of travel motivations

Destination image






There is a significant statistically significant effect of travel motivations importance in destination image.

Second sub-hypothesis

The perspectives travel motivations

Destination image






There is a significant statistically significant effect of the Perspectives travel motivations in destination image.

Third sub-hypothesis

The classifications of travel motivations

Destination image






There is a significant statistically significant effect of Classifications of travel motivations in destination image.

Figure 4. Influence of travel motivations in destination image

Table 6. Testing the influence of travel motivations in destination image






F – Test

Researcher's comment

Main hypothesis

Independent variables

Dependent variables



β Regression Coefficient

R2% Coefficient of Determination

F value calculate

Probability Value

the influence of travel motivations in destination image.

The importance of travel motivations

Destination image






The perspectives travel motivations


The classifications of travel motivations


The value of F-Tabular at the level of confidence of 95% is (2.8387)

Table 6 confirms the main hypothesis's acceptance with a confidence level of (95%), as the calculated F value was (24.307), which is statistically significant as being greater than the tabular F value of (2.8387) at the level of significance of (0.05), especially since the corresponding calculated F value (Probability Value) came at (0.000). That suggests that all travel incentives have a discernible influence on the destination's image. Meanwhile, the coefficient of determination percent R2 was achieved (66.9%), showing the proportion of interpreting (The relevance of travel motives, the views of travel motivations, and the classifications of travel motivations) in the destination picture (Figure 4).

5. Conclusions

Presented study conclusions can be drawn as follows:

  1. Travel motives describe the wants and desires of travelers in tourist places. Travel reasons vary in order to meet the various needs and aspirations of visitors. Therefore, the significance of travel motives is in understanding tourist behavior and how to make a tourist trip decision.

  2. There are numerous theories that explain travel motives, but one of the most well-known and often used is the pull and push theory of motivation. The current results indicated similarities with the findings of previous research studies in this point.

  3. The image of the destination indicates the traveler's opinion of the location as well as the number of tourist services and amenities available. The destination's image contributes to the appeal of tourist destinations and encourages tourists to visit them.

  4. Tourist destinations compete with one another to establish a favorable image of the traveller's destination in the tourist's mind.

  5. To achieve a favorable tourist image, the combination of the cognitive and emotional aspects of the image of the destination is an effective factor.

  6. By establishing a solid position in the tourism industry, the image of the destination plays an important part in the tourism marketing of tourist destinations.

Finally, the study can recommend to those concerned with this type of tourism that there is a lack of coordination and cooperation between tourism organisations in Iraq in order to enhance tourism operations in the country.


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