Constructal Tree-shaped Water Distribution Networks by an Environmental Approach

Constructal Tree-shaped Water Distribution Networks by an Environmental Approach

P. Bieupoude
Y. Azoumah
P. Neveu

Laboratoire Energie Solaire et Economie d’Energie (LESEE), Fondation 2iE 01 BP 594, Ouagadougou 01, Burkina Faso.

Laboratoire PROcédés, Matériaux et Energie Solaire (PROMES-CNRS, UPR 8521), Rambla de la thermodynamique, Tecnosud, 66100 Perpignan, France.

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Flow systems most often present thermal, mechanical and chemical losses due to irreversibility during the flowing fluid transport. These losses strongly impact both their energy performances and the flowing fluid quality. In this paper, two effective, drinking water and irrigation, tree-shaped networks (from the fluid quality and energy performance points of view) are constructed by using the constructal approach coupled with the exergy destruction minimization method. It is shown that in the construction of tree-shaped network for water distribution, the method of exergy destruction minimization is equivalent to minimizing mechanical irreversibility (this is equivalent to pumping power) under a water quality constraint. For both phenomena occurring in the network (energy consumption and the fluid quality degradation), this study offers new interesting routes for optimizing the system either by the exergy destruction minimization (in that case, both irreversible processes are taken into account in the design procedure) or by minimizing one of the two irreversible processes, the other being taken into account as the design constraint. The originality of the method relies on the introduction of the environmental protection through the control of the flowing fluid quality. This paper shows that, for the performance improvement of a water distribution network, it is important to focus on the design of the network rather than enhancing only the transport properties. Note finally that the focus on the quality in flow systems is a crucial approach in environmental engineering such as drinking water distribution systems or chemical fluids transfer systems. The approach presented in this paper should be seen as an introduction to reactive flow systems designing by constructal approach.


constructal theory, design, drinking water, exergy, irrigation, water distribution network


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