Methodology to Identify and Assess Agroecological Practices in Metropolitan Areas. Case Study, Concepción, Chile

Methodology to Identify and Assess Agroecological Practices in Metropolitan Areas. Case Study, Concepción, Chile

M. Delpino-Chamy M. Alarcon S. Fernández J. Soto

University of Concepción, Chile.

Page: 
119-130
|
DOI: 
https://doi.org/10.2495/DNE-V14-N2-119-130
Received: 
N/A
|
Accepted: 
N/A
|
Published: 
30 June 2019
| Citation

OPEN ACCESS

Abstract: 

Urban agriculture (Ua) is being constantly reviewed because of its significant contribution to urban and metropolitan sustainability (mS). Within the approaches associated with Ua, agroecology stands out as a practice that places value on collaborative social networks. Emerging from grassroots organizations that focus on ecological production and food sovereignty, agroecology strengthens short production-consumption chains, therefore increasing the resilience of metropolitan systems, which are under constant threat by natural hazards. The focus of this research is to develop and apply a methodology that identifies underlying agroecological practices, describing their location, state of development, and potential contribution to sustainability within metropolitan areas. a theoretical framework is developed to distinguish agroecological practices from commonly practiced Ua; subsequently a proposed methodology is developed to identify and assess these activities based on the following criteria: forms of production, sociopolitical organization, and mS. This methodological approach is used to analyze agroecological practices present in the metropolitan area of Concepción, Chile’s second most important city, located over a territory with high presence of marshes, riverbeds, and wetlands. Conclusions identify as main strengths of agroecological practices their location on rururban interstices, together with their small scale of production; both aspects contribute to improving mS. Regarding weaknesses, the lack of appropriate planning policies and regulations threaten agroecological practices to disappear under the pressures exerted by contemporary urban development. finally, particular attention should be given to associative organizations, which have proven to enhance sustainable agroecological outcomes, by increasing employment generation, environmental preservation and local resilience

Keywords: 

Agroecology, metropolitan areas, metropolitan sustainability, rururban interstices, socio- political organization

  References

[1] Rojas, C., Muñoz, I. & García-López, M., Estructura urbana y policentrismo en el Área Metropolitana de Concepción. EURE., 35(105), pp. 47–70, 2009. https://doi. org/10.4067/s0250-71612009000200003

[2] Casado, G.G. & Mielgo, A.A., La investigación participativa en agroecología: una herramienta para el desarrollo sustentable. Rev Ecosistemas [Internet], 6(1), 2007 Available from: http://revistaecosistemas.net/index.php/ecosistemas/article/ view/135%5Cnhttp://www.redalyc.org/pdf/540/54016104.pdf

[3] Navarro, E. & Álvarez, M.E., Agroecosistemas periurbanos, un potencial latente: Contribución al análisis de la multifuncionalidad a partir de indicadores de sustentabilidad. Revibec Rev Iberoam Econ ecológica, 24(0), pp. 107–21, 2015.

[4] Segrelles, J., Agricultura periurbana, parques naturales agrarios y mercados agropecuarios locales: Una respuesta territorial y productiva a la subordinación del campo a la ciudad. Scr, 19(502), pp. 1–35, November 2015.

[5] Folke, C., Resilience: the emergence of a perspective for social-ecological systems analyses. Glob Environ Chage 16, pp. 253–67, 2006.

[6] Collier, M., Nedovic-Budic, Z., Nedovic Budic, J., Aerts S., Connop D. & Foley K., Transitioning to resilience and sustainability in urban communities. Cities, 32(1), pp. S21–8, 2013.

[7] Calderón, R., El rol de las Áreas Naturales Periurbanas para la Resiliencia al Cambio Climático de las Metrópolis: El Caso de la Ciudad de México. Rev Iberoam Econ Ecológica [Internet], 25(0), pp. 69–79, 2016. Available from: http://raco.cat/index.php/ Revibec/article/view/310591/400616

[8] Gomez. E.L., Concepto De Sostenibilidad En Agroecología.

[9] Borsdorf, A., Hidalgo, R. & Sánchez, R., A new model of urban development in Latin America: The gated communities and fenced cities in the metropolitan areas of Santiago de Chile and Valparaíso. Cities, 24(5), pp. 365–78, 2007.

[10] Galindo, J. & Giocoli, A., Los bordes de la ciudad metropolitana: apuntes para repensar la ciudad. QRU Quad Recer en Urban 2, pp. 100–17, 2013.

[11] Curzio de la Concha, C., El origen y las características de los fragmentos urbanopúblico residuales. Cuad Geográficos 42(1), pp. 53–82, 2008.

[12] UN-HABITAT., State of Latin American and Caribbean cities. Towards a New Urban Transition. United Nat. Naples, pp. 1–194, 2012. 

[13] Soler, M. & Rivera, M., Agricultura, urbana, sostenibilidad y soberanía alimentaria: hacia una propuesta de indicadores desde la Agroecología. X Congr la Fed Española Sociol pp. 1–17, 2010.

[14] Colding, J. & Barthel, S., The potential of ‘Urban Green Commons’ in resilience building of cities. Ecol Econ 86, pp. 156–66. 2013.

[15] Sevilla, E. & Woodgate, G., Sustainable rural development: formal industrial agriculture to agroecology. In The International Handbook of Environmental Sociology, eds. M. Reddclift, and G.T. Woodgate, Cheltenham; 1997.

[16] Altieri. No Title.

[17] Gutiérrez, J., Aguilera, L. & González, C., Agroecología y sustentabilidad. Converg Rev Ciencias Soci, 15(46), pp. 51–87, 2008.

[18] González de Molina, M. & Caporal, F., Agroecología y política. ¿Cómo conseguir la sustentabilidad? Sobre la necesidad de una agroecología política. Agroecologia 8(2), pp. 34–43, 2013.

[19] Álvarez-Salas, L.M. & Polanco-echeverry, D.N., Ríos-osorio L., Reflexiones acerca de los aspectos epistemológicos de la agroecología. Cuad Desarro Rural, 11(74), pp. 55–74, 2014.

[20] Foro Mundial sobre Soberanía Alimentaria. Declaración de Nyéléni [Internet]. 2007. Available from: https://nyeleni.org/spip.php?article290

[21] Ortega-Cerdà, M. & Rivera-Ferre, M., Indicadores internacionales de Soberanía Alimentaria. Nuevas herramientas para una nueva agricultura. Rev Iberoam Econ Ecológica [Internet], 14, pp. 53–77, 2010. Available from: http://redibec.org/IVO/rev14_04.pdf