Optimal Configuration and Techno-Economic Analysis of Hybrid Photovoltaic/PEM Fuel Cell Power System

Optimal Configuration and Techno-Economic Analysis of Hybrid Photovoltaic/PEM Fuel Cell Power System

Hamza Bahri Abdelghani Harrag* Hegazy Rezk

Electrical Engineering Department, Faculty of Technology, Mohamed Boudiaf University of Msila, 28000 Msila, Algeria

Mechatronics Laboratory, Optics and Precision Mechanics Institute, Ferhat Abbas University Setif 1, Cite Maabouda (ex. Travaux), 19000 Setif Algeria

College of Engineering at Wadi Addawaser, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Wadi Addawaser 11991, Saudi Arabia

Electrical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Minia University, Minia 61517, Egypt

Corresponding Author Email: 
a.harrag@univ-setif.dz
Page: 
116-125
|
DOI: 
https://doi.org/10.14447/jnmes.v25i2.a05
Received: 
17 November 2021
|
Accepted: 
5 May 2022
|
Published: 
10 June 2022
| Citation

OPEN ACCESS

Abstract: 

In this study, a renewable energy-based hybrid system was designed capable of meeting known electrical load requirements, as the system includes a combination of photovoltaic cells (PV), a fuel cell, batteries, an electrolyzer, and a hydrogen tank. This hybrid system supplies the cell tower located in the village of Ouanougha, country of Algeria with the annual electrical energy demand of 47 kWh/day. A Hybrid optimization model for electric renewable (HOMER) simulation software is utilized for modeling, optimize sizing, simulation as well as performing the techno-economic analysis of this hybrid system. HOMER software gives several optimum system configurations, which are compared among themselves for identifying the optimum system configuration. The comparison is based on the total net present cost (TNPC) and levelized cost of energy (LCOE). Other cost parameters can be provided such as initial capital cost, operation, and maintenance cost (O&M). The simulation result shows that, the proposed hybrid system has the lowest TNPC, LCOE and Initial capital, which are 64,384 $, 0.259 $/kWh and 35,850 $, respectively. On the other hand, it proved that the hybrid system is environmentally friendly and without producing any polluting gas. This paper also focuses on the operational strategy for feeding the load, as the results show that the hybrid system generally fulfills the requirements of the load.

Keywords: 

Photovoltaic, Fuel cell, Hydrogen, Electrolyzer, Battery, TNPC, COE, HOMER

1. Introduction

increase in the percentage of carbon dioxide emissions in nature causes global warming, which has led researchers to the necessity of a rapid trend towards benefiting from renewable energy resources [1]. This latter includes geothermal energy, wind, hydraulic, wave, biomass and solar energy are the ideal resources to make them alternatives to traditional energy systems based on fossil fuels. The solar energy source is one of the most common renewable energy sources because it is clean, non-depletable, freely available everywhere and it is an important source for the formation of other sources on earth [2]. To generate electricity from the solar energy source, photovoltaic (PV) modules technologies are used [3]. Photovoltaic systems have been used in many applications such as grid-Connected, water pumping, building integrated, spacecraft and electric vehicles [4], which has given a positive impact in social, economic, and environmental. However, when using PV systems only to feed the loads in some applications, the project demands a large number of panels to cover the load requirements, which requires a high investment cost. Therefore, it cannot be exploited as an energy source individually to feed the load due to the high investment costs as well as changes in operating conditions such as temperature and solar radiation that affect the value of the energy produced [5]. To beat this issue a new concept, namely Hybrid Energy Systems has emerged [6]. The hybrid system is defined as the combination of two kinds or more of renewable with nonrenewable energy sources or without non-renewable energy sources and an optional storage system to exploit all the merits of these technologies to achieve better overall performance and to meet requirements load [7]. The selection of the application mode and the configuration of the hybrid system are based on several factors such as electrical grid availability, cost of grid supplied electricity, meteorological conditions (solar irradiation and wind speed), capacity, and requirement of load as well as the availability of the resources.

Hybrid systems based on renewable energy resources provide valuable benefits as they help reduce greenhouse gases, decrease the cost of energy, improving power quality and reliability, feasibility remote and rural areas electrification, improving services and creating new job opportunities [8]. So, it can be said that the hybrid system fulfills the three criteria for sustainable development, which include economic, environmental, and social aspects.

To exploit electricity generated from a renewable energybased hybrid system with reliable performance and at a competitive economic price, the criteria for optimal component selection and design plays an important role. Hence, an optimum sizing method is essential for using the hybrid system with high efficiently and to guarantee the lowest investment [9] [10]. This type of optimization requires a detailed analysis from several aspects, especially the site, because of its various affects such as changes in climatic conditions and their relationship to the cost of the system as a whole [10]. For this reason, numerous software and optimization techniques have been reported in the literature. Genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization and simulated annealing are the most optimization techniques for hybrid system sizing used in the literature, also techniques mentioned such as linear programming, evolutionary algorithms, neural networks, simplex algorithm, dynamic programming, stochastic approach, iterative and probabilistic approaches, design space based approach, parametric and numerical approaches, response surface methodology, matrix approach and quasi-Newton algorithm [11]. On the other hand, one of the most powerful sizing tools have been developed and widely utilized in many applications for hybrid systems is Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables (HOMER) software that was developed by National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), United States [11].

Therefore, this paper shows a hybrid system composed of PV with FC. Often, we distinguish two cases in energy production from the PV system and the requirements of the load, there may be a surplus in energy production that corresponds to fewer requirements for the load, and therefore in such a case we resort to storage using batteries, also the production of hydrogen to feed the fuel cell by using an electrolyzer. The stored energy is used to supply the load in the event of a deficit in the PV system or an increase in the load requirements. To carry out the present study, in which collects the components of hybrid system into a single workable system, HOMER software has been employed. Similar to simulation, HOMER allows many tasks to be completed. It determines the best possible system doable configuration so that there is a match between supply and demand, optimization of the size of the hybrid system, provides the cost analysis for hybrid energy system, distribution the energy supplied to the components with best proper timings, calculates the energy efficiency of the whole system [12] [13].

The main purpose of this paper is to design and optimize a hybrid power system model that includes PV system and FC with metrological data inputs to feed the considered load. For this reason, this paper is organized as follows: The second section reviewed the literature published since the second half of the last decade. In the next section, which presents load demands, different component specifications and their economic data. Section 4, show the input data parameters based on LCOE, TNPC, LCC and salvage cost. Fifthly, the simulation and optimization results obtained with HOMER software are presented and discussed. Finally, paper concludes with a conclusion.

2. Previous Literature

HOMER software helps for designing and analyzing the hybrid power systems to determine the best configuration from a group of optimized systems that fulfill the load demand under particular input parameters by performing a technical and economic analysis. Several renewable generators, conventional, storage components, electronic power devices and other inputs are modeled in HOMER such as PV array, Wind turbine, Fuel cell stack, Biomass, Hydropower, diesel generators, Electrical grid, Batteries bank, Electrolyzer, Hydrogen tank and DC/AC Converters. For this reason, HOMER can be applied for wide modes of system designs: whether stand-alone and grid connected modes. Many papers have been published assessing these hybrid systems using Homer. Table 1 shows a summary of the most relevant papers published. From this table we can observe the following:

$\bullet$Several configurations have been studied and optimized through these papers, in which PV/Win/Diesel, PV/Diesel and PV/Win are the most configurations applicable as hybrid systems in remote areas, islands, villages, hotels, universities and residences.

$\bullet$ PV array is considered the most contributing source of all previous configurations.

$\bullet$ Converter and battery are among the key parts in a hybrid system configuration.

Optimization results for each configuration intended for feeding the load is based on the initial capital cost, Operating and maintenance (O&M), total net present cost (TNPC) and levelized cost of energy (LCOE). The best configuration presented by HOMER according to the minimum value of NPC and COE.

3. Description of Hybrid System Components

In this section, we shall discuss the specifications of the different parts of this hybrid system shown in Figure 1, which six major components need to be designed: PV panel with battery, PEM fuel cell fed by an electrolyzer through hydrogen tank; inverter to fed load. To obtain the optimal and realistic result with the optimum configuration for these component sizes some economic inputs must be introduced.

3.1 Load demands of cell tower

For any power generating system, the load is an important part to define the optimal sizing of the system components. Some of these loads always need continuous feeding due to the services they provide. Undoubtedly, Communication technology systems are considered as a critical load due to the necessity to operate them day and night. Consequently, such loads require continuous service without interruption and high quality and reliability of electrical energy. In this study, a cell tower in the village of Ouanougha, the country of Algeria was selected to test the feasibility of the designed renewable energy-based hybrid system. The most important uses of electricity in this load are electronic components, Air conditioning, Lighting, signalization lamp, heater, and other equipment. Figure 2 illustrates the load profile of the cell tower. The average electricity consumption is 47 kW h/day with 5.4kW of peak demand.

Table 1. Description hybrid system in different articles

Year

Article Number

Journal

Source

Converter

Storage

PV

Win

FC

Hydro

Biomass

Diesel

Electrical Grid

Converter

Electrolyzer

Battery

Hydrogen Tank

2015

[14]

R. E.

/

/

/

/

/

/

[15]

R. E.

/

/

/

/

/

[16]

R. E.

/

/

/

/

/

/

/

/

[17]

R. E

/

/

/

/

/

/

/

[18]

R. E

/

√√

/

/

/

/

/

[19]

R. E

/

/

/

/

/

/

/

/

/

[20]

R. & S. E. Rev.

/

/

[21]

R. & S. E. Rev.

/

/

/

/

/

/

/

[22]

R. & S. E. Rev.

/

/

/

/

/

/

/

/

[23]

R. & S. E. Rev.

/

/

/

/

[24]

E.

/

/

/

/

/

[25]

E.

/

/

/

/

/

/

/

[26]

E.

/

/

/

/

/

/

/

[27]

I. J. H. E.

/

/

/

[28]

A. E.

/

/

/

/

/

/

/

[29]

E. C & M.

/

/

/

/

/

/

[30]

E. C & M.

/

/

/

/

/

/

[31]

S. E. T. & Ass.

/

/

/

/

/

/

[32]

IEEE

/

/

/

/

/

/

/

[33]

IEEE

/

/

/

/

/

/

2016

[34]

E

/

/

/

/

[35]

E. Rep.

/

/

/

/

[36]

Sus

/

/

/

/

/

/

/

[37]

R. & S. E. Rev.

/

/

/

/

/

/

/

[38]

R. E.

/

/

/

/

/

/

/

/

[39]

S. E. T. & Ass.

/

/

/

/

/

/

20

[40]

R. & S. E. Rev

/

/

/

/

[41]

IEEE

/

/

/

/

/

2018

[42]

J. E. & C. E.

/

/

/

/

[43]

IEEE

/

/

/

/

/

/

/

/

[44]

IEEE

/

/

/

/

/

/

[45]

IEEE

/

/

/

/

/

/

/

/

[46]

IEEE

/

/

/

/

/

/

/

2019

[47]

IEEE

/

/

/

/

/

/

/

/

[48]

IEEE

/

/

/

/

/

/

[49]

IEEE

/

/

/

/

/

[50]

IEEE

/

/

/

/

/

/

/

[51]

IEEE

/

/

/

/

/

/

/

/

[52]

IEEE

/

/

/

/

/

/

[53]

IEEE

/

/

/

/

/

2020

 

[54]

 

IEEE

 

 

/

 

/

 

/

 

/

 

 

 

 

/

 

/

 

/

3.2 Solar radiation and temperature

The solar radiation and temperature set databases were obtained from the PV-GIS. The latitude and longitude, 35°58 N and 4°11 E were considered in the HOMER software from which it received the radiation data. Figure 3 shows both solar radiation and temperature data for the studied site. From Figure 3, solar radiation ranges between 2360 kWh/m2 /day as minimum value registered in December and 7710 kWh/m2 /day as maximum value registered in June, which is high during the summer period and decreases during the winter period. The same applies to temperature values where the monthly average minimum is 5°C and the average maximum is 25°C.

Figure 1. The configuration of the proposed system

Figure 2. Average monthly load profile kW

Figure 3. Monthly average of radiations and ambient temperatures

3.3 Solar PV panels

Among all renewable energy sources available, the solar energy source is considered as the most renewable energy source prevalent. The technology of photovoltaic cells, which are used to harvest the sun's energy is constantly evolving and converting it into electrical energy. Mostly, the manufacturer specifies the life of the photovoltaic panels, which reaches 20 years. As for the cost, it is related to the value of the power produced in addition to the cost of installation, replacement, and a small amount of maintenance cost for the tracking system. According to [40], the cost of a peak 1kW produced from PV array reaches 1000\$. Several parameters control the performance of photovoltaic cells such as technologies of fabrication (Mono-crystalline, Multicrystalline and Amorphous Silicon), conditions climatic (irradiation and temperature), in addition to the site [55]. On the other hand, other factors must be taken into consideration, such as the ground reflectance of 20%, as well as the derating factor, which aims to reduce the electric production by 20% to approximate the changing impacts of temperature and dust on panels [40]. It should be noted that PV panels slope angle is set to 36° and 0° as array azimuth range, which refers to the parallel of latitude of the studied site and the south direction respectively.

3.4 Battery storage bank

The battery is essential in the hybrid system to store the excess power and after that used to ensure a continuous supply of energy to the load during the day or at night when the PV generators is unable to produce any power. Vision 6FM200D batteries were selected in this system. It is characterized by its terminal voltage 12V and 200 Ah capacity. As for the effect of temperature on batteries, the Homer software does not take it into account and that the battery maintains its characteristics throughout its estimated life of three years [56]. 600 \$ is the total capital cost of each battery and 110 \$ as the replacement cost, while the O&M needs only 10 \$ [57]. This battery bank is built of 4 strings in parallel; each string includes 4 batteries connected in series. Therefore, the total numbers of batteries are 8 and the DC bus is 48 V.

3.5 Fuel Cell

A fuel cell is an electrochemical system based on converting chemical energy directly into electrical energy. Fuel cell contains several components, the main is the polymer electrolyte sandwiched between two terminals (anode and cathode) [58]. The anode and cathode are the site of the chemical reactions, while the polymer electrolyte only allowed particles to pass without the electrons [59]. In this way, the electrons resort to traveling through the outer circuit from the anode to the cathode to generate electrical energy. There are several types of fuel cells available in the market. Depending on the type of application fuel cell type can be chosen. Although there is no specific type of fuel cell can be simulated within HOMER software; hence, it has been looked at the budget range and the technical characteristics for the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC). This latter was assumed for this study which is suitable for small power applications. The total cost of PEMFC includes PEMFC himself with the auxiliary devices such as compressor, DC/DC converter ...etc. In this simulation, the capital cost varies 3000$-6000$ per Kw [60] [61]. While that the installation, replacement and operational Maintenance cost is estimated to be 3000 $, 2500 $ and 0.080 \$/h respectively [57]. On the other hand, the PEMFC lifetime was assumed would last 40,000 h, while the efficiency reaches at 50% [57]. The operating mode of PEM fuel cell is presented in Figure 4, The PEMFC forced on from 18:00 in the evening until 7:00 in the morning during the months of May, Jun, July, and August, while it is forced on from17:00 until 8:00 for the rest of the months.

Figure 4. The operating mode of PEMFC

3.6 Electrolyzer system

Hydrogen is the simplest chemical element in the universe where the hydrogen atom consists of only a proton and an electron, making it the lightest element. In addition, it is considered the most abundant element in the universe, making up more than 90% of all known matter [62]. Water is one of the elements that contain the hydrogen and oxygen necessary to operate a fuel cell. The water electrolysis process is used to separate water molecules and produce hydrogen by using the electrolyzer device [63]. The latter converts DC electrical energy into chemical energy stored in hydrogen [64]. The net volume of hydrogen produced is directly proportional to the electrolyzing current and number of electrolyzers connected in series. Between 1500\$-3000\$ is cost of the electrolyzer per kW [57]. The installation cost 1500\$/kW, replacement cost 1000\$/kW and annual O&M cost 5$/yr is considered. The efficiency and lifetime are considered 80% and 20 years respectively.

3.7 Hydrogen tank

PEMFC operates at night and requires the hydrogen produced by the electrolyzer throughout the day and therefore it must be stored for later use. There are several storage techniques used for hydrogen out of which the most is to store it as a compressed gas in tanks or as a metal hydride [65]. According to [61], the price of hydrogen related to the size of the hydrogen tank, which is estimated to be 1200 \$ per 1kg of hydrogen.

3.8 Converter

The output power of hybrid system PV, FC, and battery in form DC, while the load is AC based. Thus, the insertion of an inverter between source and load is a prerequisite for the DC to AC power conversion. According to the output power of the hybrid system sources, HOMER software sizes the inverter. The latter is characterized by it efficiency which reaches 90% with a lifetime is up to 15 years [66]. The capital and replacement cost per kilowatt of inverter are considered 800 \$ and 750 \$ respectively [67]. Meanwhile, the O&M cost for converter DC/AC is zero.

4. Economic Parameter

The development of any hybrid system basically needs strong economic support. HOMER software is used as a tool to find the optimal sizing and perform techno-economic analysis of the system. The economic analysis is a crucial part to determine the optimum system; it can be performed based on different parameters. LCOE, TNPC, LCC and salvage cost are considered the four main economical parameters that need to be identified in the analysis. The detail for each parameter is mentioned in [34].

5. Optimization Results for Hybrid System

PV panel is considered as the primary source of the hybrid system. The excess electricity produced from the PV system can be stored in the battery. This latter, helps the improving the hybrid system’s efficiency, reduce the amount of unused electricity and provide security for the energy supply. The PEMFC source has an electrolyzer and tank to produce hydrogen and store it. The inverter is added to the system to feed load by AC energy. The schematic diagram of the system hybrid using HOMER software is shown in Figure 5.

Figure 5. Schematic diagram of hybrid system

Table 2 represents the top seven optimization results given by HOMER software based on the design specifications for this hybrid system. The NPC and COE are considered as the most important decision-making parameters to choose the best system. As it is shown in this table, system number one is the best system compared to the other systems, which has Initial capital of 35,850 \$, TNPC is 64,384 \$ and COE is 0.259 \$/kWh. Also, the value of the operating cost is 1.974 \$/y and the maximum capacity shortage is considered 5% of the total load.

Table 2. Optimization results for PV, Battery and PEMFC based system

When we look at the net present cost of the hybrid system, it includes three parameters capital cost, replacement, and O&M. From Table 3, it can be observed that capital cost presents the highest, and then it comes second the operating and maintenance cost of the system and finally the replacement cost. In the capital cost, PV and battery is highest, while PEMFC to a lesser degree. This latter has the highest replacement cost. The O&M cost of the system is also expensive, in which the highest value is for both PEMFC and PV respectively.

Table 3. Cost detail of the PV, Battery and PEMFC based system

Component

Capital ($)

Replacemen Capital ($)

O&M Capital ($)

Fuel Capital ($)

Salvage Capital ($)

Total Capital ($)

PV

12,00

3,320

8,672

0

-1,975

22,018

PEMFC

4,200

5,542

8,879

0

-627

17,994

Battery

4,800

1,514

1,156

0

-8

7,462

Converter

5,600

2,075

202

0

-1,234

6,643

Electrolyzer

6,250

1,647

301

0

-979

7,219

Hydrogen Tank

2,000

0

48

0

0

2,048

Other

1,000

0

0

0

0

1,000

System

35,850

14,098

19,260

0

-4,824

64,384

Table 4 shows details electrical power generation from the hybrid source and consumption of load. An Analysis of this data shows that the PV array dominates the power generation by providing 69% of the total generated power, followed by then PEMFC by providing power at 31%. The reason for this is due to the largest consumption of load during day, whereas the PEMFC used at night for operating strategy and the high cost of energy of hydrogen-based system.

Table 4. Total production and consumption of system

Production output (kWh/yr)

PV array

PEMFC

Battery Annual

Throughput

Total Production

19,235

8,498

1,165

27,733

69%

31%

-

100%

System parameters (kWh/yr)

Load

consumption

Excess

Electricity

Unmet Electric Load

Capacity Shortage

17,207

2,138

57.8

781

73 %

7.71 %

0.33 %

4.52 %

The analyzing consumption of electrical power in hybrid system is divided into cell tower load and the electrolyzer, in which reaches at 23,431 kWh/yr. The cell tower load consumes 17,207 kWh/yr, which represents 73% of total consumption, while the electrolyzer consumes 6,225 kWh/yr, with percentage is 27%. In fact, not all of the energy produced from PV is consumed. There is an excess of energy estimated at 2,138 kWh/year. On the other hand, the electricity shortage is only 5% of the total load which means the system can supply almost the whole load demand.

The operation of a PEM fuel cell depends on the availability of hydrogen produced by the electrolyzer. The Figure 6 shows the hydrogen produced over a year. Total hydrogen production is 126 kg/year where the daily production fluctuates between 0.15 kg/day to 0.45 kg/day. This fluctuation of production is due to the availability of electricity to the electrolyzer through PV or sometimes Battery bank. The generated hydrogen during day is stored in the hydrogen tank. The hydrogen storage level depends on the electrolyzer and PEMFC operation.

Figure 6. Hydrogen production by electrolyzer

6. Power Output Hourly Data

In the proposed HRES, PV/PEMFC energy sources with storage units are integrated to feed cell tower. In such HRES the control strategy of energy management between sources is important part, as several aspects are taken into account such as: selection of the optimal approach, minimum operating costs and components life. The control strategy determines how to manage power and to make coordination between the different sources, i.e., determines the components must work and which not, where must one store energy surplus. The excess energy produced from PV panel is exploited to charge the batteries or to feed the electrolyzer or other auxiliary components. According to the operating system situation, the battery bank will import (the battery is considered as a load), export (the battery is considered as a source) the necessary power. In which, if the power requested from load less than power produced by the PV source and the battery charging status (SOC), is maximum, then the excess power produced by the PV sources is directed to feed the electrolyzer, and the hydrogen produced is stored in the tank for later use by PEMFC. Likewise, when the battery’s (SOC), is minimum.

The hourly data analysis of the HOMER software allows analysis of detailed simulation results in a variety of way to have a better understanding of the system operation strategy. Therefore, the demand load profile, power flow by each source PV/PEMFC, electrolyzer input, battery input/output power and battery state of charge are shown in Figures 7 to 9, during 24 hours.

Figure 7. Operational conditions of PV, Battery and PEMFC hybrid system

Figure 8. Operational conditions of PV, Battery and PEMFC hybrid system

Figure 9. Operational conditions of PV, Battery and PEMFC hybrid system

In the case of January, from midnight until about 8 a.m. and from 17 in the evening until midnight corresponding to the hours when solar radiation is decreasing or absent, the cell tower is fed by a PEMFC with a battery bank. With the beginning of the morning period, the output energy of the PEMFC decreases until it becomes zero according to the specific strategy for it operating, while the PV array begins to deliver electrical energy with the increase of solar radiation starting from 7:30 a.m.; However, the output power is insufficient to cover the load requirements during these first hours, as the battery bank continues to feed the load as long as the SOC of battery is above 40%. With the increase in solar radiation, the output power of the PV array increases until it reaches maximum values during the middle of the day, exceeding 9 kW, as the excess energy is exploited to charge the battery as well as to feed the electrolyzer. The same process can be seen for the month of July with some differences related to weather conditions and changes in the strategy of the PEMFC work.

The case of November indicates to the decrease and fluctuations in the power production from PV system due to the decrease in the solar radiation, which leads to an inability to meet the requirements of cell tower during 7 a.m. until 12 p.m. During this period, the PEMFC and battery are assured the load requirements. Solar radiation returns to the rise after 12 p.m., as the photovoltaic arrays produce energy to feed the load with the possibility of supplying the electrolyzer and charging the battery until 18 p.m. During the evening, the requirements of the cell tower are guaranteed by PEMFC without any shortage. Generally, the total Unmet Electric Load reaches at 57.8 kWh/yr as presented in Table 4, this value is considered reasonable and very small.

7. Conclusion

In this study, an independent energy system based on renewable energy sources was proposed, which included both photovoltaic and fuel cells in addition to batteries as a storage system to satisfy the requirements of the cell tower. Using HOMER with all data input and designed load profile, a techno-economic analysis of a hybrid PV/PEMFC based system was performed with the study of optimum energy management between sources and load. The results of simulation prove the possibility of installing PV/PEMFC based system with battery and hydrogen as storage components for distributed generation of electric power for stand-alone applications at cell tower, in which the optimization sizing for hybrid system includes of 12 kW for PV array, 7 kW for PEMFC as well as 8 batteries. From the economic side, the major parameter of the study was TNPC and COE. Among other costs initial cost, replacement cost and O&M cost are considered. Power generation fees of the hybrid system has been found to be 0.259 ($/kWh) and total NPC 64,384 (\$). On the other hand, this hybrid system gave many benefits, the most important of which is the possibility of using renewable systems as alternatives to traditional systems in these areas or for such loads, as they are reliable sources to meet the requirements of pregnancy and are environmentally friendly.

Acknowledgment

The Algerian Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research supported this research (Research PRFU Project A01L07UN190120180005).

Nomenclature

Acronyms

Description

PV

Photovoltaic

FC

Fuel Cell

PEMFC

Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Win

NREL

National Renewable Energy Laboratory LCOE

TNPC

Total Net Present Cost

LCC

Life Cycle Cost

DC

Direct Current

R. E.

Renewable Energy

R. & S. E. Rev.

Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews

E.

Energy

I. J. H. E.

International Journal of Hydrogen Energy

A. E.

Applied Energy.

E. C & M.

Energy Conversion and Management

S. E. T. & Ass.

Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments

E. Rep.

Energy Reports.

Sus

Sustainability.

J. E. & C. E

Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering.

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