Opportunities for the Development of Safety and Health Protection Systems in the Small and Medium Enterprise (SMEs) Sector

Opportunities for the Development of Safety and Health Protection Systems in the Small and Medium Enterprise (SMEs) Sector

Ahmad Padhil* Hari Purnomo Hartomo Soewardi Imam Djati Widodo

Department Doctor of Industrial Engineering, Universitas Islam Indonesia, Yogyakarta 55584, Indonesia

Department Industrial Engineering, Universitas Muslim Indonesia, Makassar 90231, Indonesia

Corresponding Author Email: 
21 August 2023
5 March 2024
12 March 2024
Available online: 
26 April 2024
| Citation

© 2024 The authors. This article is published by IIETA and is licensed under the CC BY 4.0 license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).



The Occupational Health and Safety Program (OHS) is a method attempting to lower the risk of accidents and occupational diseases. The OHS is aimed at reducing the risks of occupational diseases and accidents in the small and medium-enterprises (SME) sector. This study aims to see the gaps in OHS that only focused on medium-sized industries so that the SME sector does not experience the effects of OHS. In-depth and systematic literature reviews were conducted, and the classification of the disaster type and its object from those sources was performed. The results show that there are gaps in the OHS, which can be seen both from the mitigation and identification methods used, which open up opportunities for further research, especially in the development of new investigative methods, as well as to improve the design of protection systems. The findings of this study will be the latest research based on perspectives in the global scope by looking at the relevant perspectives that have been run and compared systematically to be able to create opportunities for the updating of the risk mitigation process OHS in SME industrial sector.


protection system, safety integrity level, Macroergonomic, small medium enterprise, Hazard Mitigation, occupational health and safety

1. Introduction

One of the economic sectors that significantly contribute to the gross domestic product (GDP) is small and medium Enterprise (SME) [1]. The growth and development of SMEs can provide employment opportunities as well as increase public income [2]. In order to stay viable, SME must automate at least several particular industry processes. By doing so, they can take advantage on rapidly developing technology and able to protect their products from extinction in the world market [3]. Every industry must establish a system for managing occupational safety and health in order to increase labour productivity. This is one of the requirements for the development of industry [4].

The Occupational Health and Safety Program (OHS) is a method attempting to lower the risk of accidents and occupational diseases. Therefore, it establishes a safe and healthy workplace [5]. An industry that has potential risks from the production processes must implement health and safety system at work [6]. Entrepreneurs require the skills and mindsets to protect themselves, to support the application of OHS in SME. Moreover, the workplace also can promote general knowledge of OHS, skill-development, as well as specific information on their job [7]. In increasing the awareness of self-care and work safety, the OHS law is needed to support better working conditions [8].

The issue on OHS that frequently arises for all these time on SME sectors is unidentified workplace accidents, because it is not accommodated by the preventive concept that can assess how reliable the OSH system there. The Safety Integrity Level (SLI) is a way for assessing the dependability [9]. However, the SLI has only been used for medium-scale industries. It becomes the focus on the research regarding the gap. Thus, it can support further research and conduct a combination of previous research.

This research was carried out using a systematic library study method to see the gaps. It will be the latest research based on perspectives in the global scope by looking at the relevant perspectives that have been run and compared systematically to be able to create opportunities for the updating of the risk mitigation process OHS in the SMEs sector that aims to know the achievements of the OHS Mitigation segmentation and the factors that influence it.

Research on occupational safety and health in small and medium-sized industries (SMEs) is becoming crucial in today's global context. With rapid growth in the SMEs sector contributing significantly to the gross domestic product (GDP), as well as the potential to create jobs and increase public income, it is important to ensure that the working environment within the SMEs is safe and healthy. This research is urgent because there is a need to identify gaps and improve understanding of occupational safety and health practices in SMEs. With the risks associated with the production process in SMEs, this research is urgently needed to develop an effective and reliable occupational safety and health system. Furthermore, this research can help in balancing the need for occupational safety and health with the competitive challenges faced by SMEs in the global market. By clarifying the importance of occupational safety and health in the context of SMEs, this research can provide a solid foundation for sustainable policy and practice improvements, which will ultimately benefit not only workers and entrepreneurs but also society as a whole.

2. Methodology

The combination of Systemic Literature Review (SLR) and Systemic Literature Mapping (SLM) method is used to perform systematic literature surveys for research opportunities. The SLR approach is used in the first phase to classify the planned areas of research [10]. The classification that shows up depends on the search terms entered [11]. Further, the sequential steps are: 1) Planning: initiates identification using the predefined keywords; 2) Executing: search for literary sources from various publications as the first step in conducting research stage; 3) Reporting: involves presenting systematical literary review materials as the last step [12, 13]. Following the SLR step, the mapping of the literature results is continued by using SLM to determine the prospective research that should be conducted next. SLM is started by identifying the primary concern of the completed SLR, and the concern then dismounted into a derivative system as the second layer. Furthermore, the system's element becomes the third layer, the methodology as the fourth layer, and the outcome of research as the last layer for the mapping of the previous study. All layers are related to the system that has been conducted previously [14].

2.1 Review planning

110 pieces of literature on macro ergonomics, occupational safety, SLI were examined as part of the review process, using some keywords such as "Protection System," "Safety Integrity Level," "Macroergonomic", "Small Medium Enterprise", "Hazard Mitigation", and "Occupational Health and Safety". The literature search is done automatically. The Open Knowledge Browser is used to find all journal articles published between 2017 and 2023 in Europe Insight, Proquest, SAGE Journals, Science Direct, SpringerLink, and Taylor & Francis Online. Through this procedure, information about the continents that have been conducting research on the proposed course of study is found. Figure 1 shows the distribution of articles by continents: Asia has 45 articles, Europe has 21 articles, Africa has 21 articles, and America has 23 articles.

Based on Figure 1, Indonesia has discussed a considerably number of research which covers the topic of work safety in various sectors. According to data released by The Ministry of Manpower of the Republic of Indonesia, the number of accidents at work in Indonesia in the last 3 years increased to 23% by 2022, and 64.7% of such incidents occurred in workplace. In this case, special attention is needed in the production process so that it can reduce the number of work accidents.

2.2 Application of review criteria (planning step)

The next stage is the scanning process of the literatures that have been collected based on the determined topics and the previous established limitations. The literatures used were publications in English that had been published in the last five years [15, 16]. Of the 110 literatures that have been analyzed, 50 were eliminated due to exceeding the limitation of publication year. Figure 2 shows the distribution of the literatures per year.

Furthermore, this stage only uses literature with keyword formulations to answer SLR questions (Hisnul, Setiadi, and Rahayu, 2022) [1], which consists of:

  1. Question 1: How many literatures that discuss the application, implementation, and the impact of OHS on performance and results?

Figure 1. Distribution of the Journal of Safety Integrity Level (SLI), Macroergonomics, and occupational safety in various countries

Figure 2. Distribution of the year the literature was published

Figure 3. Distribution of the Journal of Specify Keywords in various countries

  1. Question 2: How many literatures which are related to the research objectives of the first question that consist of the types of accidents that can be mitigated, system development, model development, reduction on worker’s disability risks due to workplace accident as well as defects on protection systems, and risk mitigation?
  2. Question 3: How many literatures that contain the finding in the integration of OHS method, the role of investigation methods, the improvement of work efficiency, and model development?

2.3 Analysis of review results (conducting step)

The next stage is conduction. This step used the limitations of keywords arose from research questions including "safety integrity level", “macro ergonomics”, “Small and Medium Enterprises”, and “work safety”, including the methods that consisted of HIRACD, FTA, and Hazop.

This process obtained 60 publications for in-depth study resources. The countries where the literature sources are published can be seen in Figure 3.

In-depth review on those 60 publications were conducted systematically, in which the review perspectives were focused on bibliography, focus of problem, area case studies, publication content, and then sharpened by investigating the case of work accidents occurred in the area case study object. In addition, the clustering was carried out based on reviewing the aspect of each literature, consisted of years of publication item to the writer names, types of publications, and scope of the publication in detail.

After that, the methods, samples, and modules of analysis are shown in case studies descriptions. Then at the final stage, the clustering is reviewed based on research motivation, objectives, description of findings, strengths and weaknesses of research, and opportunities for further research. Moreover, the investigation on the types of work accidents that have been protected by the OHS method policy is conducted at this stage. The review process can be seen in the Table 1 which refers to systematic review patterns. As the example is literary review written by Ahmed Salaheldine Darwish in 2020 [17].

Table 1. Example review protocol





Applying LOPA and Fuzzy Logic to Identify SIL Requirement for Safety Critical Functions in a Direct Reduction Iron Industry

Type of Publication


Name of Publication

Alexandria Engineering Journal

Scope of Publication


Details of Case Study

Object of Case Study

Oil & Gas Industry


LOPA & Fuzzy Logic

Sample and Population


Model Analysi

Risk Identification

Safety Risk Mitigation

Kind Accident

Gas Poisoning

Focus and Content Publication


Identifying OHS Risks in The Oil & Gas Sector


Early protection against work accidents.


Provides layered protection from the fusion of Fuzzy logic and LOPA


The risk of mitigation remains on the assets (equipment)


Making an Operator as a Variable

3. Results and Discourse (Reporting Step)

The review procedure is carried out during the reporting stage using the concepts from Table 1 and literature review. The table displays the connections between texts, the findings of the study, and the chances to develop the research.

3.1 Bibliography analysis

After reviewing 60 journals relevant to research topics, it was found that research on the topic of occupational safety issues were the most popular in 2021, with a total of 32 publications. However, the number decreased in the following year as shown in Figure 2. The research was published in several scientific sources, as presented in Figure 4.

In the past five years, scientific scope topics with an emphasis on Science 6, Engineering 15, Applied Science 17, Social 6, Economics 9, Public Health 7, and Literature have been published in journals. This demonstrates how crucial workplace safety is across all industries.

The scope of scientific area that addresses the issue of occupational health and safety in the last five years has been published in journals with the focus as follows: 6 literatures on Science, 15 on Engineering, 17 on Applied Science, 6 on Social Science, 9 on Economics, and 7 on Public Health. It shows the importance of occupational health and safety issue in all sectors.

3.2 Detailed case study analysis

3.2.1 Analysis of research question 1

The first research question is: How many literatures that discuss the application, the implementation, and the impact of OHS on work performance and result?

Figure 4. Distribution of the scientific scope area that discusses the issue of work safety in the last five years

Based on the results of the review conducted to answer the first research question were found literatures discussed the application, implementation, and the influence of OHS. It could be seen in pie diagram 1 (Figure 5).

In the literature review that had been conducted, 43% of them were related to OHS system application, and the objects of study were the oil & gas, mining, and manufacturing industries. As an illustration, [18] stated that using safety precautions could lower the likelihood of accidents, and 27% of the literature research demonstrated the implementation of work safety models for productivity. These studies demonstrated that the adoption of work safety systems had a positive impact on productivity [19, 20], and that productivity was decreased from the awareness of OHS [8]. Moreover, 11% discussed the comparison in the using of OHS methods, in which one of them compared the use of the Safety Integrity Level (SIL) with the Safety Instrument Function (SIF) [21].

It was also found that 4% of the OHS studies were associated with financial risk, and one of them examined the financial risks caused by work accidents [22].

3.2.2 Analysis of research questions 2

The second research question is: How many literatures related to the research objectives of the first question that consist of the types of accidents that can be mitigated, system development, model development, reduction on worker’s disability risks due to workplace accident as well as defects on protection systems, and risk mitigation? Several studies addressed to the second research issue were found, as indicated in pie diagram 2 (Figure 6).

Figure 5. Pie diagram percentage distribution of research areas for research question No. 1

Figure 6. Pie diagram 2 percentage distribution of research purpose area for research question No. 2

The number of literature that discusses the development of systems for security protection related to the first research question was 31%, which resulted in the expansion of security protocols for equipment in the telecommunications industry [23], security improvement regression in social scope [7], and the development of OHS enforcement [18, 24, 25]. Furthermore, it was found that 31% of the literature review discussed the findings on the addition of safety aspects, 19% on the opinion growth on the implications of implementing OHS and Macro Ergonomic Analysis Design (MEAD), 12% on the reduction of product defects, 5% on the implications for software design, and 2% on performance improvements.

3.2.3 Analysis of research questions 3

The third research question is: How many literatures that find the integration of OHS method, the role of investigative methods, the improvement of work efficiency, and model development?

It was discovered from the review of the literature, the research that integrated methods in mitigating OHS was only 13% effective in improving the implementation system of occupational safety and health, one of which provides recommendations for the implementation of ergonomics and work safety in the workplace after providing the first and second research questions [26]. It is illustrated thoroughly in pie diagram 3.

We can see that 19% of planned investigative models, 30% of operating system enhancement, 6% of risk cost, 24% of operating system design, and 8% of new method analysis over the literature distribution is depicted on this pie diagram 3 (Figure 7).

3.3 Detail of case study analysis

Based on the literature review, the purpose of this review is to highlight the gap in OHS that only focused on medium-sized industries so that the small and medium-medium-enterprises sector does not experience the effects of OHS. According to data from the Indonesian Ministry of Employment, the number of work accidents in Indonesia was 265,334 cases between January-November 2022. The number increased by 13.26% compared to the entire year of 2021, which was 234,270 cases. Figure 8 shows the study material on OHS.

Manufacturing industry was the research object of OHS with the most number, consisted of 10 literatures. Apart from the relatively strict regulations in this sector, the availability of high-value equipment assets was the reason for the equal implementation of OHS regulations [27]. In fact, research on occupational safety in the medical sector has also been carried out, one of which suggests providing Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) in every hospital [28].

Meanwhile, in the technology development sector, a lot of research has been carried out on security protection devices [29], and the design of rechargeable battery technology that require security protection [30]. Then, risk reduction process is carried out in the food processing sector by using the HIRACD method [5].

Figure 7. Pie diagram 3 percentage of distribution of OHS research handling solutions for research questions No. 3

Table 2. Distribution of the types of work accident risks that are protected, the methods used

Accident Type

Mitigation Methods


Function Failure

Safety Integrity Level

Oil & Gas


Safety Integrity Level


Gas Leak

Safety Integrity Level

Oil & Gas




Hot temperature



Struck down by Equipment





Waste treatment

Fall down



Skin Radiation





Oil & Gas

Transportation Accident

Mechanism Analysis and Signed Directed Graph


Table 3. Distribution of research gaps

Research Opportunities


System Improvement Plan

[3, 22, 23, 26, 31-33]

Operating System Improvement

[1, 8, 21, 24, 25, 27, 30, 34-41]

Information On Work Risk Cost Value


Operational System Design

[5, 7, 18, 38, 45-54]

Model Implementation

[19, 37, 43, 55-61]

New Analysis Method

[2, 57, 62-64]

Figure 8. Distribution of research gaps on occupational safety that only focus on industry

3.4 Focus and content analysis

In the detailed study analysis phase earlier, information on the industries that had undertaken research on occupational safety as well as certain macroeconomics-related literature was collected.

The focus of the analysis's content in this section will show the types of risks in work accident that get protection, as well as the research method and location. Table 2 provides references to these details.

3.5 The map for research gap

In-depth and systematic reviews of the 60 literatures were conducted, and the classification of the disaster type and its object from those sources was performed. The result was that there were research gaps, as shown in Table 3.

There are chances to conduct unexplored or unfinished research based on the identified research gaps in Table 3. Indeed, research development can also consider areas of study based on risk mitigation which so far are still centered on assets, not yet on human as operators.

4. Conclusion

According to the background information in the literature study, there are still workplace safety and health applications where the approaches employed for identification and mitigation are not given the full attention they need. According to a review of the literature, medium-sized microenterprises should be of particular concern. The mitigation of risks implemented by the type of accident is still concentrated on handling accidents that are of a short-term nature and have not yet resulted in injuries that will result in work-related illnesses. This creates opportunities for additional research, especially on the development of novel investigational techniques and improvement strategies.

Based on the of this literature review, there are areas of OHS that still have not been maximized, which can be seen both from the mitigation and identification methods used. The literature review shows that the sector that should be of concern is micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs). In addition, after reviewing the type of accident, risk mitigation is still focused on handling accidents that is considered as short term, and have not yet led to the handling of injury factors that will result in work-related illnesses. The results open up opportunities for further research, especially in the development of new investigative methods, as well as to improve the design of protection systems.


The author thanked all parties who have helped in the implementation of this research, especially Islamic University of Indonesia that fully supports and provides for the researchers to conduct this research.


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