On the Utilization of Nanofluids as Secondary Fluid for Heat Transfer in a Magnetocaloric Cooler

On the Utilization of Nanofluids as Secondary Fluid for Heat Transfer in a Magnetocaloric Cooler

Adriana Greco Ciro Aprea Angelo Maiorino Claudia Masselli*  

DII, University of Naples “Federico II”, P.le Tecchio 80, Napoli 80125, Italy

DIIn, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132 Fisciano (SA) 84084, Italy

Corresponding Author Email: 
26 January 2019
20 March 2019
31 March 2019
| Citation



Magnetocaloric refrigeration is based on solid-state refrigerants exhibiting magnetocaloric effect, detected in a temperature change of the materials due to the adiabatic variation of the intensity of a magnetic field applied to it. Magnetocaloric refrigeration could represent potentially an alternative to vapor compression since the former is more environmentally-friendly. The reference thermodynamical cycle is AMR cycle, applied to a solid-state structure made by the magnetocaloric material, placed between a cold and a hot heat exchanger and subjected to alternative magnetization/demagnetization cycles. To vehiculate the fluxes between cold and hot heat exchangers, a heat-transfer fluid is used: it usually is water or a water-ethylene mixture for sub-zero applications, but innovative solutions could be adopted, such as nanofluids in order to enhance the thermal conductivity of the resulting fluid. In this paper we report the results of an investigation conducted on a parallel-plate AMR refrigerator, employing nanofluids (Al2O3 and CuO) as heat-transfer medium. The analysis was perpetuated changing both the nanofluid volume concentration and the magnetocaloric material. The results are reported in terms of cooling power and coefficients-of-performance and we detect that the effect of using a water-based nanofluid is always positive in terms of the energy performances of the AMR refrigerator.


nanofluids, magnetic refrigeration, magnetocaloric, AMR, heat transfer fluid, CuO

1. Introduction
2. Tool and Materials for the Investigation
3. The Investigation
4. The Energy Performances
5. Conclusions

[1]    Mirandola A, Lorenzini, E. (2016). Energy, environment and climate: From the past to the future. Int. J. of Heat and Technology 34(2): 159-164. https://doi.org/10.18280/ijht.340201

[2]    United Nation Environment Program (UN). (1987). Montreal Protocol on substances that deplete the ozone layer, United Nation Environment Program (UN), New York, NY, USA.

[3]    Heath EA. (2017). Amendment to the Montreal protocol on substances that deplete the ozone layer (Kigali amendment). International Legal Materials 56(1): 193-205. https://doi.org/10.1017/ilm.2016.2 

[4]    Aprea C, Greco A, Maiorino A, Masselli C. (2018). The drop-in of HFC134a with HFO1234ze in a household refrigerator. Int. J. of Thermal Sciences 127: 117-125. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijthermalsci.2018.01.026

[5]    Aprea C, Greco A, Maiorino A, Masselli C, Metallo A. (2016). HFO1234yf as a drop-in replacement for R134a in domestic refrigerators: a life cycle climate performance analysis. International Journal of Heat and Technology 34(2): S212-S218. https://doi.org/10.18280/ijht.34S2

[6]    Aprea C, Greco A, Maiorino A, Masselli C. (2018). Solid-state refrigeration: A comparison of the energy performances of caloric materials operating in an active caloric regenerator. Energy 165: 439-455. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy. 2018.09.114

[7]    Kitanovski A, Plaznik U, Tomc U, Poredoš A. (2015). Present and future caloric refrigeration and heat-pump technologies. Int. J. of Refrig. 57: 288-298. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrefrig.2015.06.008

[8]    Yu BF, Gao Q, Zhang B, Meng XZ, Chen Z. (2003). Review on research of room temperature magnetic refrigeration. International Journal of Refrigeration 26(6): 622-636. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-7007(03)00048-3

[9]    Pecharsky VK, Gschneidner Jr KA. (1999). Magnetocaloric effect and magnetic refrigeration. Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 200(1-3): 44-56. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-8853(99)00397-2

[10]    Aprea C, Greco A, Maiorino A, Masselli C. (2018). The environmental impact of solid-state materials working in an active caloric refrigerator compared to a vapor compression cooler. International Journal of Heat and Technology 36(4): 1155-1162. https://doi.org/10.18280/ijht.360401

[11]    Gómez JR, Garcia RF, Catoira ADM, Gómez MR. (2013). Magnetocaloric effect: A review of the thermodynamic cycles in magnetic refrigeration. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 17: 74-82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2012.09.027

[12]    Yu W, France DM, Routbort JL, Choi SU. (2008). Review and comparison of nanofluid thermal conductivity and heat transfer enhancements. Heat Transf. Eng. 29(5): 432-460. https://doi.org/10.1080/01457630701850851

[13]    Choi SUS. (1995). Enhancing thermal conductivity of fluids with nanoparticles. Developments and Applications of Non-Newtonian Flows, FED 231/MD 66: 99-105.

[14]    Choi SUS, Zhang ZG, Yu W, Lockwood FE, Grulke EA. (2001). Anomalously thermal conductivity enhancement in nanotube suspensions. Appl. Phys. Lett. 79: 2252-2254. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1408272

[15]    Saidur R, Leong KY, Mohammad H. (2011). A review on applications and challenges of nanofluids. Ren. and sust. En. Rev. 15(3): 1646-1668. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2010.11.035

[16]    Chiba Y. (2017). Enhancements of thermal performances of an active magnetic refrigeration device based on nanofluids. Mechanics 23(1): 31-38. https://doi.org/10.5755/j01.mech.23.1.13452

[17]    Mugica I, Roy S, Poncet S, Bouchard J, Nesreddine H. (2017). Exergy analysis of a parallel-plate active magnetic regenerator with nanofluids. Entropy 19(9): 464. https://doi.org/10.3390/e19090464

[18]    Aprea C, Cardillo G, Greco A, Maiorino A, Masselli C. (2015). A comparison between experimental and 2D numerical results of a packed-bed active magnetic regenerator. Appl. Therm. Eng. 90: 376-383. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2015.07.020

[19]    Aprea C, Greco A, Maiorino A, Masselli C. (2015). A comparison between rare earth and transition metals working as magnetic materials in an AMR refrigerator in the room temperature range. Appl. Therm. Eng. 91: 767-777. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2015.08.083

[20]    Aprea C, Cardillo G, Greco A, Maiorino A, Masselli C. (2016). A rotary permanent magnet magnetic refrigerator based on AMR cycle. Appl. Therm. Eng. 101: 699-703. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2016.01.097

[21]    Aprea C, Greco A, Maiorino A, Masselli C. (2017). Analyzing the energetic performances of AMR regenerator working with different magnetocaloric materials: Investigations and viewpoints. Int. J. of Heat and Tech. 35: S383-S390. https://doi.org/10.18280/ijht.35Sp0152

[22]    Aprea C, Greco A, Maiorino A, Masselli C. (2018). Energy performances and numerical investigation of solid-state magnetocaloric materials used as refrigerant in an active magnetic regenerator. Therm. Sc. and Eng. Progr. 6: 370-379. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsep.2018.01.006

[23]    Aprea C, Greco A, Maiorino A. (2013). The use of the first and of the second order phase magnetic transition alloys for an AMR refrigerator at room temperature: A numerical analysis of the energy performances. Energy Conversion and Management 70: 40-55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2013.02.006

[24]    Dan’kov SY, Tishin AM, Pecharsky VK, Gschneidner Jr KA. (1998). Magnetic phase transitions and the magneto-thermal properties of gadolinium. Phys Rev. B 57(6): 3478-3490. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.57.3478

[25]    Bjørk R, Bahl CRH, Katter M. (2010). Magnetocaloric properties of LaFe13-x-yCoxSiy and commercial grade Gd. J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 322(24): 3882-3888. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmmm.2010.08.013

[26]    Vajjha RS, Das DK, Namburu PK. (2010). Numerical study of fluid dynamic and heat transfer performance of Al2O3 and CuO nanofluids in the flat tubes of a radiator. International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 31(4): 613-621. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatfluidflow.2010.02.016

[27]    Bianco V, Vafai K, Manca O, Nardini S. (2015). Heat transfer enhancement with nanofluids. CRC Press. https://doi.org/10.1201/b18324