Neighbourhood Sustainability Assessment Model for Developing Countries: A Comprehensive Approach to Urban Quality of Life

Neighbourhood Sustainability Assessment Model for Developing Countries: A Comprehensive Approach to Urban Quality of Life

Tseliso Moroke Carel Schoeman Ilse Schoeman

Subject Group for Urban and Regional Planning, Mathematics and Applied Mathematics North-West University (Potchefstroom Campus), South Africa

Page: 
107-123
|
DOI: 
https://doi.org/10.2495/SDP-V15-N1-107-123
Received: 
N/A
|
Accepted: 
N/A
|
Published: 
01 January 2020
| Citation

OPEN ACCESS

Abstract: 

To this end, sustainability has progressively become a core principle and prerequisite in the urban planning and development. The application of sustainability and/or its principal expression is being threatened by neighbourhoods’ inequality such as segregation in land use and varying levels of income in developing countries. From sustainable development perspective and strictly linked to spatial contexts, this reflects inadequate urban planning as these spatial and socio-economic inequalities translate to fragmented spatial systems, unsustainable urban form and low quality of life. The analysis of these variables depicts that between the rich neighbourhoods and poor neighbourhoods very little space is afforded for connectivity and integration, local facilities, environmental quality and spatial components which are themselves pillars of sustainable urban form and desired quality of life are not preferentially factored into poor neighbourhoods. Thus, bringing multiple and multifaceted adverse impacts on poor people such as living in the unsafe and unhealthy areas. In essence, locally provided community facilities, infrastructure and services are mechanisms of spatial transformation and integration thus promote social and economic development. When drawing up social services to act as the basis from which sustainability in urban areas could be determined – central contention is that urban sustainability cannot be achieved without adequate social facilities that are differentiated by neighbourhoods varying development densities, community size, mobility levels and socio-economic variations. As a result, this research paper evaluates the sustainability level of low-income neighbourhood living spaces which urban system requires in order to achieve urban sustainability. Evaluating neighbourhood sustainability requires a modelling and integrated approach that bring forward all aspects of urban development and quality of life. The Successful Neighbourhood Model (SNM) developed as the comprehensive sustainability assessment tool for low income neighbourhoods in pursuit of neighbourhood sustainability in South Africa is used. The application of SNM procedure embrace metric benchmarking methodology and this quantitative nature of sustainability assessment is employed to conclude and recommend timely integration of new urban sustainability issues in the planning policies, strategies and instruments. SNM has demonstrated that it is possible to identify barriers that hinder poor neigbourhoods to be sustainable and presents possibilities of aiding urban policy decisions regarding sustainability. 

Keywords: 

Neighbourhood, sustainability, quality of life, evaluation.

  References

[1] Moroke, T., Schoeman, C.B. & Schoeman, I.M., Integrative and modelling approach to sustainability modes of living and neighbourhood development. WIT Transactions on the Built Environment, 179, WIT Press, 2018, https://doi.org/10.2495/ug180141

[2] Steyn, J. & Van Greunen, D., ICTs for Inclusive Communities in Developing Societies, Cambridge Scholars Publishers, Newcastle, 2015.

[3] Barton, H., Sustainable Communities: The Potential of Eco-Neighbourhoods, Earthscan, London-New York, 2013.

[4] El Din, H.S. & Elariane, S.A., Principles of urban quality of life for a neighbourhood, HBRC Journal, 9(1), pp. 86–92, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hbrcj.2013.02.007

[5] Theofilou, P., Quality of life: Definition and measurement. Europe’s Journal of Psychology, 9(1), pp. 150–162, 2013. https://doi.org/10.5964/ejop.v9i1.337

[6] Lotfi, S. & Solaimani, K., An assessment of urban quality of life by using analytic hierarchy process approach. Journal of Social Science, 5(2), pp. 123–133, 2009. https://doi. org/10.3844/jssp.2009.123.133

[7] Fuller, R.A. & Irvine, K.N., Interactions between people and nature in urban environments. Urban Ecology, pp. 134–171, 2010.

[8] Suharto, T., Tan, Y. & Severine, M., Social infrastructure planning and sustainable community: example from South East Queensland, Australia. World Journal of Social Sciences, 1(4), pp. 23–32, 2011.

[9] Garau, C. & Pavan, V.M., Evaluating urban quality: Indicators and assessment tools for smart sustainable cities. Sustainability, 10(3), pp. 575–593, 2018. https://doi. org/10.3390/su10030575

[10] UN-Habitat. Global Activities Report 2017.

[11] Waas, T., Huge, J., Verbruggen, A. & Wright, T., Sustainable development: A bird’s eye view, Sustainability, 3(10), pp. 1637–1661, 2011. https://doi.org/10.3390/su3101637

[12] Ceschin, F. & Gaziulusoy, I., Evolution of design for sustainability: from product design to design for system innovations and transitions. Design Studies, 47, pp. 118–163, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.destud.2016.09.002

[13] Turkoglu, H., Sustainable development and quality of urban life, Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 202, pp. 10–14, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.08.203

[14] Council of Europe, Parliamentary Assembly. Documents de Séance, 7–8, 2003.

[15] Marshall, D. & Danister, D., Land use and Transport, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2009.

[16] Huang, L., Wu, J. & Yan, L., Defining and measuring urban sustainability: A review of indicators. Landscape Ecology, 30(7), pp. 1175–1193, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1007/ s10980-015-0208-2

[17] Choguill, C. L., Developing sustainable neighbourhoods. Habitat International, 32(1), pp. 41–48, 2008. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.habitatint.2007.06.007 T. Moroke, et al., Int. J. Sus. Dev. Plann. Vol. 15, No. 1 (2020) 123

[18] Zhang, Q., Yung, E.H.K. & Chan, E.H.W., Towards sustainable neighbourhoods: challenges and opportunities for neighbourhood planning in transitional urban China. Sustainability, 10(2), pp. 406–429, 2018. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10020406

[19] Van den Berg, M., City children and genderfied neighbourhoods: The new generation as urban regeneration strategy. International Journal and Regional Strategy, 37(2), pp. 523–536, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2427.2012.01172.x

[20] Callway, R., Dixon, T. & Nikolic, D., Breeam Communities: Challenges for Sustainable Neighbourhood Evaluation, RICS COBRA, London, 2016.

[21] Cao, X., Mokhtarian, P.L. & Handy, S.L., Do changes in neighbourhood characteristics lead to changes in travel behaviour?: A structural equations modelling approach. Transportation, 34(5), pp. 535–557, 2007. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11116-007-9132-x

[22] Nolon, J.R., Compendium of Land Use Laws for Sustainable Development, 2006.

[23] Xu, Z. & Coors, V., Combining system dynamics model, GIS and 3D visualization in sustainability assessment of urban residential development. Building and Environment, 47, pp. 272–287, 2012. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2011.07.012

[24] Barelkowski, R., Strategies for the identity of sustainable suburbs. WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment, 191, pp. 667–679, 2014.

[25] Allen, A., Sustainable cities or sustainable urbanisation? mycourses.aalto.fi (accessed 16 September 2013).

[26] Haapio, A., Towards sustainable urban communities. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 32(1), pp. 165–169, 2012. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eiar.2011.08.002

[27] Moroke, T., Schoeman, C.B. & Schoeman, I.M., Developing a neighbourhood sustainability assessment model: An approach to sustainable urban development, Sustainable Cities and Society, 48, p. 101433, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scs.2019.101433

[28] Wu, J. & Wu, T., Sustainability indicators and indices: An overview, http://citeseerx.ist. psu.edu, (accessed 26 January 2018).

[29] Ishizaka, A. & Siraj, S., Are multi-criteria decision-making tools useful? An experimental comparative study of three methods. European Journal of Operational Research, 264(2), pp. 462–471, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejor.2017.05.041

[30] Schoeman, I.M., The Use and Application of Vector Optimization Methods for Land Use and Transportation Integration (In Transportation, Land Use and Integration), WIT Press, 2017.

[31] Saaty, T.L., The Analytic Hierarchy Process, McGraw Hill, New York, 1980.

[32] Saaty, T.L., How to make a decision: The analytic hierarchy process and its applications. European Journal of Operational Research, 48(1), pp. 9–26, 1990. https://doi. org/10.1016/0377-2217(90)90057-i

[33] Saaty, T.L., Decision Making for Leaders, Pittsburgh, RWS Publications, 2001.

[34] Saaty, T.L. & Vargas, L.G., Models, Methods, Concepts and Applications of the Analytic Hierarchy Process, Boston, Kluwer Academic Publications, 1984.

[35] Kiker, A.K., Bridges, T.S., Varghese, A., Seager, T.P. & Linkovd, I., Application of multicriteria decision analysis in environmental decision making. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, 1(2), 95–108, 2005. https://doi.org/10.1897/ ieam_2004a-015.1

[36] Zeferino, J.A., Coceicao-Cunha, M. & Antunes, A.P., Siting and sizing the components of a regional wastewater system: A multiobjective approach. Ecology and the Environment, 103, WIT Press, 2007.

[37] CoM (City of Matlosana). Township regeneration strategy, 2013