The correlation between stressors and bioindicators can provide evidence of environmental status both as an indication and monitoring tool, and in the identification of the pollutant source. cyanobacteria possess several hallmark traits of good bioindicators: physiological tolerances or ecological ranges of specific cyanobacterial species can differ depending on taxon-specific cellular requirements. In certain conditions cyanobacteria can form extensive blooms; this phenomenon arising from excessive nutrient input is usually of anthropogenic origin, resulting from a myriad of sources including point sources from municipal and industrial discharges, and non-point sources from agricultural run-off.
This work is integrated with the activities carried out within a wider research project aimed at (a) characterizing the role of cyanobacteria as a good bioindicator of coastal water quality, (b) advancing a hierarchical monitoring approach using space-borne remote sensing to in-situ sampling and laboratory microscope analysis of cyanobacteria, (c) reporting on the taxonomic analysis of the cyanobacterial community in the coastal waters of campania region in southern Italy, and (d) exploring the relationship of cyanobacteria with the terrestrial river basins draining to the coast.
In this study, the occurrence of specific cyanobacteria species in extremely polluted environment has been investigated. Specifically, the target point has been selected based on the discharge from the wastewater treatment plant in cuma, campania region (Italy). These analyses can support environmental impact studies by governmental officials regarding aquatic pollution problems e.g. determining the effectiveness of wastewater plants in preventing eutrophication impacts within specific coastal areas.
bioindicators, cyanobacteria, cyanotoxin, early detection, environmental monitoring, impact assessment
 Cooper, T.F., Gilmour, J.P. & Fabricius, K.E., Bioindicators of changes in water quality on coral reefs: Review and recommendations for monitoring programmes. Coral Reefs, 28(3), pp. 589–606, 2009. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00338-009-0512-x
 Holt, E.A. & Miller, S.W., Bioindicators: using organisms to measure environmental impacts. Nature Education Knowledge, 3(10), p. 8, 2010.
 Markert, B., Definitions and principles for bioindication and biomonitoring of trace metals in the environment. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, 21(SUPPL. 1), pp. 77–82, 2007. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2007.09.015
 Britstein, M., Devescovi, G., Handley, K.M., Malik, A., Haber, M., Saurav, K., Teta, R., Costantino, V., Burgsdorf, I., Gilbert, J.A., Sher, N., Venturi, V. & Steindler, L., A new N-Acyl homoserine lactone synthase in an uncultured symbiont of the red sea sponge Theonella swinhoei. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 82(4), pp. 1274–1285, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.03111-15
 Girotti, S., Maiolini, E., Bolelli, L., Ghini, S., Ferri, E., Barile, N. & Medvedeva, S., Analytical techniques and bioindicators in environmental control: honeybees, mussels, bioluminescent bacteria: rapid immunoassays for pesticide detection. Soil Chemical Pollution, Risk Assessment, Remediation and Security, pp. 327–347, 2008. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-8257-3_29
 Lega, M. & Endreny, T., Quantifying the environmental impact of pollutant plumes from coastal rivers with remote sensing and river basin modelling. International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, 11(5), pp. 651–662, 2016. https://doi.org/10.2495/sdp-v11-n5-651-662
 Teta, R., Della Sala, G., Glukhov, E., Gerwick, L., Gerwick, W.H., Mangoni, A. & Costantino, V., Combined LC-MS/MS and Molecular Networking Approach Reveals New Cyanotoxins from the 2014 Cyanobacterial Bloom in Green Lake, Seattle. Environmental Science and Technology, 49(24), pp. 14301–14310, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.5b04415
 Teta, R., Della Sala, G., Mangoni, A., Lega, M. & Costantino, V., Tracing cyanobacterial blooms to assess the impact of wastewaters discharges on coastal areas and lakes. International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, 11(5), pp. 804–811, 2016. https://doi.org/10.2495/SDP-V11-N5-804-811
 Mateo, P., Leganés, F., Perona, E., Loza, V. & Fernández-Piñas, F., Cyanobacteria as bioindicators and bioreporters of environmental analysis in aquatic ecosystems. Biodiversity and Conservation, 24(4), pp. 909–948, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-015-0903-y
 Teta, R., Romano, V., Della Sala, G., Picchio, S., De Sterlich, C., Mangoni, A., De Sterlich, C., Mangoni, A., Di Tullio, G., Costantino, V. & Lega, M., Cyanobacteria as indicators of water quality in Campania coasts, Italy: A monitoring strategy combining remote/proximal sensing and in situ data. Environmental Research Letters, 12(2), 2017. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/aa5649
 Errico, A., Angelino, C.V., Cicala, L., Podobinski, D.P., Persechino, G., Ferrara, C., Lega, M., Vallario, A., Parente, C., Masi, G., Gaetano, R., Scarpa, G., Amitrano, D., Ruello, G., Verdoliva, L. & Poggi, G., SAR/multispectral image fusion for the detection of environmental hazards with a GIS. In Proceedings of SPIE – The International Society for Optical Engineering, 2014, https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2066476
 Lega, M., Casazza, M., Teta R. & Zappa C.J., Environmental impact assessment: a multi-parametric approach for monitoring polluted coastal waters. International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, In press.
 Ferrara, C., Lega, M., Fusco, G., Bishop, P. & Endreny, T., Characterization of terrestrial discharges into coastal waters with thermal imagery from a hierarchical monitoring program. Water, 9(7), p. 500, 2017. https://doi.org/10.3390/w9070500
 Gargiulo, F., Persechino, G., Lega, M. & Errico, A., IDES project: a new effective tool for safety and security in the environment. International Conference on Algorithms and Architectures for Parallel Processing. Springer, Cham, pp. 201–208, 2013.
 Errico, A., Angelino, C.V., Cicala, L., Persechino, G., Ferrara, C., Lega, M., Vallario, A., Parente, C., Masi, G., Gaetano, R., Scarpa, G., Amitrano, D., Giuseppe Ruello, G.,Verdoliva, L. & Poggi, G., Detection of environmental hazards through the feature-based fusion of optical and SAR data: a case study in southern Italy. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 36(13), pp. 3345–3367, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1080/01431161.2015.1054960
 Mangoni, O., Imperatore, C., Tomas, C.R., Costantino, V., Saggiomo, V. & Mangoni, A., The new carotenoid pigment moraxanthin is associated with toxic microalgae. Marine Drugs, 9(2), pp. 242–255, 2011. https://doi.org/10.3390/md9020242
 Casazza, M., Maraga, F., Liu, G., Lega, M., Turconi, L. & Ulgiati, S., River water quality and its relation with air quality: a long-term case study in a remote and pristine NW Italian headwater catchment. Journal of Environmental Accounting and Management, 5(1), pp. 35–47, 2017. https://doi.org/10.5890/jeam.2017.03.004
 Casazza, M., Lega, M., Liu, G., Ulgiati, S. & Endreny, T.A., Aerosol pollution, including eroded soils, intensifies cloud growth, precipitation, and soil erosion: a review. Journal of Cleaner Production, 189, pp. 135–144, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.04.004