Kuwait, an arid country, has no surface source of useable water. It mainly depends on desalination plants for its freshwater needs. Brackish groundwater (salinity <5000 ppm) is used for irrigation and mixing with desalinated water. At the current rate of increase in demand for freshwater, large investment is necessary at close intervals to augment the desalination capacity of the country. With very little natural replenishment, the aquifers yielding the brackish water are also under great stress. Management of both supply and demand is necessary to solve these problems. In addition to the increase in desalination capac- ity, supply may be augmented by the increased use of renovated wastewater, storage of seasonally higher supply of usable water in the aquifers through artificial recharge, establishment of integrated water trans- port network through the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries and exploration of new useable groundwater resources both onshore and offshore. Possible new sources of water are harvesting of rain- fall runoff in the wadis and depressions and runoff carried by the storm water network within the urban areas, moisture recovery from the vadose zone, and the paleo-groundwater possibly preserved under the Arabian Gulf. Demand may be curbed through maintaining lower pressure in the water network and some form of rationing, reduction of network loss through adoption of appropriate measures, imple- mentation of updated water code that will help in saving water, control of population through tighter immigration measures and reduction in government subsidy. Finally, water authorities should take steps to increase public awareness about all aspects of water management outlined before in real earnest.
artificial recharge, brackish water, desalinated water, groundwater, runoff harvesting, wastewater
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