Wastewater Treatment by Constructed Wetlands with Thalia Geniculata and Paspalum Paniculatum in a Tropical System of Mexico

Wastewater Treatment by Constructed Wetlands with Thalia Geniculata and Paspalum Paniculatum in a Tropical System of Mexico

E.C. Jiménez-lópez G. López-Ocaña R.G. Bautista-Margulis M. Castelán-Estrada A. Guerrero-Peña J.R. Hernández-Barajas C.A. Torres-Balcázar E. De La Cruz-Luna M.J. Romellón-Cerino R. Solís-Sílvan

Colegio de Postgraduados, Tabasco-México.

Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco, México.

Instituto Tecnológico de Villahermosa, México.

Page: 
42-50
|
DOI: 
https://doi.org/10.2495/SDP-V12-N1-42-50
Received: 
N/A
|
Accepted: 
N/A
|
Published: 
1 January 2017
| Citation

OPEN ACCESS

Abstract: 

Constructed wetlands (CWs) have increasingly been developed worldwide for stormwater and wastewater treatment. In this context, CWs have been seen as an economically attractive, energy-efficient way of providing high standards of wastewater treatment. In the present study, a CWS has specifically been designed and operated for domestic wastewater treatment. The removal efficiency of basic pollutants was evaluated in the CWs under free water surface (FWS) and horizontal subsurface flow conditions, employing two native species: Paspalum paniculatum and Thalia geniculata. The experimental results showed that the retention time throughout the treatments varied from 6.5 to 7.5 days; while temperatures of approximately 26°C were observed to reduce the load of pollutants. The experimental tests were highly effective for the wastewater treatment since the removal efficiencies of biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus were found to be in the range of 79%–94%. The experimental data were statistically analyzed by the ANOVA approach and Tukey´s test. The treatments showed highly significant statistical differences (P<0.05). From the operating cost standpoint, the current native vegetation was proven to be satisfactory for wastewater treatment in tropical regions of Mexico.

Keywords: 

constructed wetlands, removal efficiency, wastewater treatment

  References

[1] Seidel, K., Macrophytes and Water Purification, eds. J. Tourbier & R.W. Pierson, Pennsylvania University Press: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, pp. 109–122, 1976.

[2] Vymazal, J., Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment. Ecological Engineering, 25, pp. 475–477, 2005. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2005.07.002

[3] Kadlec, R.H. & Wallace, S.D., Treatment Wetlands, 2nd edn., CRC Press: Boca Raton, Florida, 2008.

[4] CONAGUA, Comisión Nacional del Agua. Situación del Subsector Agua Potable, Alcantarillado y Saneamiento. pp. 280, 2012

[5] Gersberg, R.M., Gearhart, R.A. & Ives, M., Pathogen removal in constructed wetlands. In Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment, ed. D.A. Hammer, Lewis Publishers: Chelsea, Michigan, pp. 431–446, 1989.

[6] Vymazal, J., Emergent plants used in free water surface constructed wetlands: a review. Ecological Engineering, 61, pp. 582–592, 2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2013.06.023

[7] Gu, B., DeBusk, T.A., Dierberg, F.E., Chimnex, M.J., Pietro, K.C. & Aziz, T., Phosphorus removal from Everglades agricultural runoff by submerged aquatic vegetation/limerock treatment technology: an overview of research. Water Science and Technology, 44(11/12), pp. 101–108, 2001.

[8] Hammer, D.A. & Knight, R.L., Designing constructed wetlands for nitrogen removal. In Proceeding 3rd International Conference Wetland Systems in Water Pollution Control, University of New South Wales: Sydney, Australia, pp. 3.1–3.37, 1992.

[9] Brix, H, Arias, C. & Johansen, N.H., Experiments in a two-stage constructed wetland system: nitrification capacity and effects of recycling in nitrogen removal. In Wetlands: Nutrients, Metals and Mass Cycling, ed. J. Vymazal, Backhuys Publishers: Leiden, The Netherlands, pp. 237–258, 2003.

[10] Abidi, S., Kallali, H., Jedidi, N., Bouzaiane, O. & Hassen, A., Comparative pilot study of the performances of two constructed wetland wastewater treatment hybrid systems. Desalination, 246, pp. 370–377, 2009. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2008.03.061

[11] Crites, R. & Tchobanoglous, G., Sistemas de manejo de aguas residuales para núcleos pequeños y descentralizados, McGraw-Hill: Colombia, p. 1043, 2000.

[12] Norma Oficial Mexicana, NOM-001-ECOL-1996, que establece los límites máximos permisibles de contaminantes en las descargas de aguas residuales en aguas y bienes nacionales. Normas Técnicas Mexicanas de Aguas Residuales en México. Diario Oficial de la Federación (30/04/1997)

[13] Hach Company, World Headquarters. DR/2010 procedures manual. Loveland, Colorado. p. 872, 1997.

[14] Akratos, S.C. & Tsihrintzis, A.V., Effect of temperature, HRT, vegetation and porous media on removal efficiency of pilot-scale horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands. Ecological Engineering, 29, pp. 173–191, 2007. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2006.06.013

[15] Karathanasis, A.D., Potter, C.L. & Coyne, M.S., Vegetation effects on fecal bacteria, BOD, and suspended solid removal in constructed wetlands treating domestic wastewater. Ecological Engineering, 20, pp. 157–169, 2003. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0925-8574(03)00011-9

[16] Katsenovich, P.Y., Hummel, B.A., Ravinet, J.A. & Miller, F.J., Performance evaluation of constructed wetlands in a tropical region. Ecological Engineering, 35, pp. 1529– 1537, 2009. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2009.07.003

[17] Chung, A.K.C., Wu, Y., Tam, N.F.Y. & Wong, M.H., Nitrogen and phosphate mass balance in a sub-surface flow constructed wetland for treating municipal wastewater. Ecological Engineering, 32, pp. 81–89, 2008. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2007.09.007

[18] Morari, F. & Giardini, L., Municipal wastewater treatment with vertical flow constructed wetlands for irrigation reuse. Ecological Engineering, 35, pp. 643–653, 2009. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2008.10.014

[19] Jia, W., Zhang, J., Wu, J., Xie, H. & Zhang, B., Effect of intermittent operation on contaminant removal and plant growth in vertical flow constructed wetlands: a microcosm experiment. Desalination, 262, pp. 202–208, 2010. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2010.06.012