The air quality in metropolitan areas of Russia and Italy, although with different distribution and intensity, raises similar concerns for the respective public authorities about vehicle emissions, as well as about the stagnation of toxic pollutants in urban areas. This article discusses some typical situations in both these countries.
In order to obtain suitable solutions to diminish this form of impact, different tools that are based on different approaches can be proposed. It is necessary to consider both the practical possibility of application and the cost–benefit balance that takes into account the realization cost and industrial system transformation on one side, and the results in terms of air quality improvement on the other.
The different instruments (technological intervention on engines, chemical modification of fuels, mobility and road infrastructural planning) are presented for the considered countries, and also in more developed European and American areas, with a concentrated interest in areas of applicability, costs and obtained results.
The externality of this form of pollution is presented and discussed, and the aspect of limitation of impact and consequent external costs is evaluated in comparison with monetary and infrastructural costs for emissive system modification.
air quality improvement, automotive emissions, environmental damage, tools of intervention
 Ionescu, G., Apostol, T., Rada, E.C., Ragazzi, M. & Torretta, V., Critical analysis of strategies for PM reduction in urban areas. UPB Scientific Bulletin, Series D: Mechanical Engineering, 75(2), pp. 175–186, 2013.
 Pant, P. & Harrison, R.M., Estimation of the contribution of road traffic emissions to particulate matter concentrations from field measurements: a review. Atmospheric Environment, 77, pp. 78–97, 2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2013.04.028
 Wang, W., Huang, M., Kang, Y., Wang, H., Leung, A., Cheung, K. & Wong, M., Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban surface dust of Guangzhou, China: status, sources and human health risk assessment. Science of the Total Environment, 409, pp. 4519–4527, 2011 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.07.030
 Evaluating 15 years of transport and environmental policy integration TERM 2015, EEA.
 European Environmental Agency, Evaluating 15 years of transport and environmental policy integration, EEA Report n 7/2015.
 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, available at www.ipcc.ch
 Survey of the environment condition and pollution in Russian Federation for 2014, available at www.meteorf.ru/upload/iblock/4c0/Obzor_2014.pdf
 IEA CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion, OECD/IEA, Paris, 2015, available at wds. iea.org/wds/pdf/Worldco2_Documentation.pdf
 State Statistics Federal Service, available at www.gks.ru
 The basics of the State policy in the field of Russian Federation ecological development in the period till 2030, available at www.consultant.ru/document/cons_doc_LAW_129117
 Panepinto, D., Brizio, E. & Genon, G., Atmospheric pollutants and air quality effects: Limitation costs and environmental advantages (a cost-benefit approach). Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy, 16(8), pp. 1805–1813, 2014. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10098-014-0727-6
 ISPRA, IX Rapporto sulla qualità dell’ambiente urbano, Emissioni e qualità dell’aria, 2011.
 The annual of the pollutants emissions into the atmosphere air of the Russia cities and regions in 2014, available at www.meteorf.ru/product/infomaterials/ezhegodniki/
 Mayburov, I. & Leontyeva, Y., Reducing the negative impact of motor transport on the environment: Prospects for the use of fiscal instruments in Russia. WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment, 186, pp. 863–874, 2014. http://dx.doi.org/10.2495/ESUS140771
 Mayburov, I. & Leontyeva, Y., Transport tax in Russia as a promising tool for the reduction of airborne emissions and the development of the road network. WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment, 198, pp. 391–401, 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.2495/AIR150341
 Magaril, E., Improvement of the environmental and operational characteristics of vehicles through decreasing the motor fuel density. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 23(7), pp. 6793–6802, 2016. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-5920-6
 Golubeva, A. & Magaril, E., Environmental tax as an instrument of economic stimulation to improve the quality of motor fuels. WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment, 192, pp. 149–159, 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.2495/ECO150141
 Golubeva, A. & Magaril, E., Improved economic stimulation mechanism to reduce vehicle CO2 emissions. WIT Transactions on the Built Environment, 130, pp. 437–445, 2013.
 Magaril, E., The solution to strategic problems in the oil refining industry as a factor for the sustainable development of automobile transport. WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment, 190(2), pp. 821–832, 2014. http://dx.doi.org/10.2495/EQ140762
 Magaril, E., Increasing the efficiency and environmental safety of vehicle operation through improvement of fuel quality. International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, 10(6), pp. 880–893, 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.2495/SDP-V10-N6-880-893
 Abrzhina, L.L. & Magaril, E.R., Assessment of environmental-economic effectiveness of multifunctional fuel additives. WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment, 198, pp. 287–294, 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.2495/AIR150241
 Magaril, E., Improving car environmental and operational characteristics using a multifunctional fuel additive. WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment, 147, pp. 373–384, 2011. http://dx.doi.org/10.2495/AIR110351
 Magaril, E., The influence of carbonization elimination on the environmental safety and efficiency of vehicle operation. International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, 8(2), pp. 231–245, 2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.2495/SDP-V8-N2-231-245
 Magaril, E., Improving the efficiency and environmental safety of gasoline engine operation. WIT Transactions on the Built Environment, 130, pp. 437–445, 2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.2495/UT130341
 Magaril E., Carbon-free gasoline engine operation. International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, 10(1), pp. 100–108, 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.2495/SDP-V10-N1-100-108
 Università di Venezia, Piano urbano della mobilità del Comune di Reggio Emilia, Simulazione modellistica dell’inquinamento atmosferico da traffico veicolare in provinciale di Reggio Emilia – Allegato al documento finale, Giugno 2007.
 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of air and radiation, the benefit and costs of the clean air act from 1990 to 2020, final report – rev A, 2011.
 Magaril, E., Abrzhina, L. & Belyaeva, M., Environmental damage from the combustion of fuels: challenges and methods of economic assessment. WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment, 190(2), pp. 1105–1115, 2014. http://dx.doi.org/10.2495/EQ141032
 Framework Convention on Climate Change, newsroom.unfccc.int/