Instructions for Authors


You are strongly advised to take the time to read the following instructions before submitting a paper to any of the IIETA journals. 

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This section explains the IIETA’s editorial criteria, and how our editors handle papers from submission through publication.

-Publication criteria

To get published in the IIETA journals, a scientific paper should report original research, be of tremendous scientific importance, or report a finding that interests the readers in the relevant field. The originality means the main results should neither been published before nor be under consideration for publication in other journals. The papers published in the IIETA journals have a wide influence among scholars and ordinary readers.

-Submission method

To reduce delays, the level, length and format of the paper should conform with the IIETA’s requirements (Formatting guide), at submission and each revision. Papers should be submitted via our Open Journal Systems (OJS). Also, it is optional to submit a cover letter with your paper. The cover letter should highlight the importance of the paper and explain why it is suitable for the journal. Do not repeat what is already present in the abstract and introduction.

-Initial evaluation

On submission, the paper is assigned to an editor covering the subject area, who will decide whether to send it for peer review. The criteria are that the work described seems novel and has immediate and far-reaching implications. The editor who has been assigned the paper will seek advice from experts in relevant fields before making the decision. The decision does not reflect the technical validity of the results reported in the paper. Neither does it indicate the importance of the paper to those in the same field.

-Peer review

Once the decision has been made to peer review the paper, the editor who has been assigned the paper will select reviewers. If necessary, he/she will seek advice from editors who have lately handled papers in relevant fields. The reviewers must be independent from the authors and their institutions, able to evaluate the technical aspects of the paper, and available to evaluate the paper within the required period. Each paper will be sent to at least two reviewers.

-Review decisions

In the light of reviewers’ comments, the editor who has been assigned the paper will send an email to the corresponding author via our OJS, offering one of the following options:

(a) Accept: The paper is accepted for publication without any further changes required from the authors.

(b) Minor revision: The paper is accepted for publication in principle once the authors have made some revisions according to reviewers’ comments. As no further experiment or technical work has been requested, the revised paper will not be sent back to the reviewers, but accepted for publication after the editor who has been assigned the paper has checked that the reviewers’ comments have been implemented and that the revised paper satisfies the format requirements (Formatting guide).

(c) Major revision: The paper will have a good opportunity of being accepted for publication once the authors have made significant revisions according to reviewers’ comments. In this case, further experiment or technical work are necessary to address the reviewers’ concerns. The revised paper will be sent back to one or both reviewers for a second round of review. The authors should also provide a point-by-point response to reviewers’ comments.

(d) Rejection: The paper is rejected because the reviewers have raised considerable technical objections and/or the authors’ claim has not been adequately established.

-Copy editing

Once accepted, the paper is copyedited to maximize its clarity and enhance its value. Our subeditors will recheck the grammar, spelling and format of the paper. Special care is given to papers written by non-native speakers, and special attention is paid to summary paragraphs, overall clarity, figures, and titles. The copyedited paper is expected to satisfy the following requirements: the paper is of the proper length, the terminology and notation conform to our standards, and the figures and tables are clear and fit in the space available.


After going through the above steps, the paper will appear in the forthcoming issues of the corresponding IIETA journal. 

-Manuscript transfer

If the editor who has been assigned the paper is unable to offer publication of your manuscript, you can transfer all manuscript materials, the acceptance email and any reviewers’ comments to another IIETA journal without restarting the entire submission process. The new journal must cover the same field or have high relevance with the original journal. You may initiate the transfer process to the new journal or submit elsewhere.


This section introduces how to prepare your paper for submission to the IIETA. You are recommended to read this section and our template carefully before submitting anything to the IIETA. You are also recommended to get familiar with the IIETA’s style and content by reading our journals, either in print or online. It is strongly advised that you just replace the “content” of the template without modifying the “form”.

General requirements


The IIETA publishes multiple top-rated international journals covering a wide range of research fields. Therefore, papers should be written in clear and simple language, making them easily accessible to readers in other disciplines and for whom English is not their first language. For this purpose, technical jargons should be avoided as much as possible, and be clearly explained where their use is unavoidable. As with abbreviations, please spell out the full name upon first mention in the text and then provide the abbreviation. Non-standard abbreviations should be kept to a minimum. The background, methodology and main conclusions of the paper should be clearly explained. Titles and the abstract should be written in language that will be readily intelligible to any expert. Essential but specialized terms should be explained concisely but not didactically. To avoid unnecessary errors, you are strongly advised to use the “spell-check” and “grammar-check” functions of your word processor.

-Inclusive language 

Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Any paper submitted to the IIETA should make no assumption about the beliefs or commitments of any reader, should not contain anything which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of race, sex, culture or any other characteristic, and should use inclusive language throughout. Authors must ensure that writing is free from bias, for instance by using “he or she”, “his/her” instead of “he” or “his”, and by making use of job titles that are free of stereotyping (e.g. “chairperson” instead of “chairman” and “flight attendant” instead of “stewardess”).

-Overall structure

Each paper should be organized in the following sequence: title, author information, abstract, keywords, introduction, methodology, results and discussion, conclusions, acknowledgements, references, nomenclature and appendix (if any). We encourage authors to incorporate these contents in a single file (Microsoft Word), and place tables and figures in a separate file. The preferred length of each paper falls between 4 and 12 pages of the IIETA journals. Each paper should contain at least 15 references.

Requirements by section


The title should be concise and informative. It does not normally contain acronyms, abbreviations, punctuation or formulae. The title should be general enough to convey the theme of the paper to readers outside of the field, and include enough details for indexing purpose.

-Author information

The author information contains the name, affiliation and address of each author, plus the email of the corresponding author. The corresponding author should be identified by an asterisk symbol. The IIETA expects the identified author to coordinate the handling of corrections complaints and any other matters arising from the published paper. The author named as corresponding author is not necessarily the senior author, and publication of his or her name does not imply seniority.


Each paper has an abstract, separate from the main text, of up to 300 words, which does not have references, and does not contain non-essential abbreviations, acronyms or measurements. The abstract should be a single paragraph and should follow the style of structured abstracts, but without headings: Purpose: Place the question addressed in a broad context and highlight the research purpose; Methodology: Describe briefly the main methods applied in the paper. Results & Conclusions: Summarize the main results of the paper and interpret them in concise words. Do not include results which are not presented and substantiated in the main text or exaggerate the main conclusions. Implications: Explain how the research findings contribute to the question addressed. 


Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of six keywords, avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, “and” and “of”), and arrange them in alphabetic order. We recommend that the keywords are specific to the paper, yet reasonably common within the subject discipline. Do not use abbreviations unless they are firmly established in the field. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes. 


The introduction should be succinct, with no subheadings. In this section, the study should be briefly placed in a broad context, highlighting its importance. The purpose and significance of the research should be clearly defined, including specific hypotheses being tested. The current state of the research field should be reviewed carefully, with key publications cited. Finally, the main aim, methodology and conclusions of the work should be summed up in a concise thesis statement. The introduction should be written in language that will be comprehensible to readers working outside the topic.


The methodology section should be written as concisely as possible but should provide enough details to allow others to replicate and build on published results. New methods should be described in detail while well-established methods can be briefly introduced and properly cited. If the method from a previous paper is used, then this paper must be cited and discussed. Detailed descriptions of the method already published should be avoided; a reference number can be provided to save space, with any new addition or variation stated. If multiple methods are adopted in the work, the methodology section should be subdivided into several subsections, each providing details on a specific method.

-Results and discussion

Results and discussion may be divided into subsections or may be combined. If combined, section headings should be used and subheadings may appear. This section should provide a concise and precise description of the results, their interpretation and possible conclusions that can be drawn from the results. The authors are recommended to discuss the results and how they can be interpreted in perspective of previous studies and of the working hypotheses. The findings and their implications should be discussed in the broadest context possible.


This section should clearly explain the main conclusions of the research, highlighting its importance and relevance. The limitations of the work and future research directions may also be mentioned. It must not contain anything not substantiated in the main text. Please do not make another abstract.


All acknowledgments (if any) should be included at the very end of the manuscript before the references. Do not include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. Anyone who contributed to the research or manuscript, but who is not a listed author, should be acknowledged. Do not include thanks to anonymous reviews and editors, inessential words, or effusive comments. All sources of funding of the study should be listed in this standard way: This work is supported by the National Science Foundation (Grant numbers: xxxx, yyyy). It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. 


Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). References are each numbered, ordered sequentially as they appear in the text, tables, etc. As a guideline, each paper should contain no fewer than 15 references. Only one publication can be listed for each number. All authors should be included in reference lists.

Please follow the style below in the published edition of the IIETA journals and the examples in our template in preparing reference lists.

Authors should be listed surname first, followed by a comma and initials of given names.

Titles of all cited articles are required and should be in upright, not italic text; the initial letter of the first word in the title should be capitalized, and the title written exactly as it appears in the work cited, ending with a full stop. Book titles should be in upright with the initial letter of each main word capitalized. The publisher and city of publication are required for books cited. Journal titles should be in upright and abbreviated according to common usage.  

References to websites should give authors if known, title of cited page, URL in full, and date of access.

The digital object identifier (DOI) should be attached to the end of a reference if the reference has one indeed.

You are encouraged to identify in your papers the articles of similar research published in the IIETA journals. 


All the symbols used in the text and their definitions should be listed in detail and unambiguously. Do not use the same symbol for two or more different meanings or definitions; similarly, do not use more than one symbol for one variable/parameter. Each dimensional symbol must have SI units mentioned at the end. All dimensionless groups and coefficients must be indicated as dimensionless after their definitions. More requirements and example of nomenclature is provided in our template.


If there is an Appendix section in your paper, please place the section after Nomenclature and follow the format of the text.

Special requirements


You are strongly recommended to use MathType to edit equations, and submit equations as editable text and not as images. Microsoft Equation Editor is also acceptable. An equation should not be partly text and partly MathType, or partly MathType and party Microsoft Equation Editor. “Float over text” should not be selected. Avoid redundant spacings or punctuations that may undermine the display of equations. Number consecutively any equations that must be displayed separately from the text, if referred to explicitly in the text. Specific formats of equations are given in our template.


Create tables using Microsoft Word embedded functions or export Microsoft Excel tables. Do not create tables by hand using multiple spaces or tabs and containing no cells. Every table must have a descriptive title and if numerical measurements are given, the units should be included in the column heading. Tables have a short, one-line title in bold text. 

At initial submission, tables and figures should be placed in a separate file. The table quality should be good enough to be assessed by reviewers. Before publication, all tables should be inserted into the main text close to their first citation and must be numbered following their number of appearance (Table 1, Table 2, etc.). Specific formats of Tables are given in our template.


A short, explanatory caption should be placed directly below the figure. Ensure that the caption is on the same page with the figure. The IIETA requires figures in electronic format. Figures should be as small and simple as possible, without sacrificing clarity. Avoid unnecessary complexity, coloring and excessive details. 

Lettering in figures should be in lower-case type, with the first letter capitalized and no full stop. Units should have a single space between the number and the unit, and follow SI nomenclature. Thousands should be separated by commas (1,000). 

At initial submission, figures and tables should be placed in a separate file. The figure quality should be good enough to be assessed by reviewers. Before publication, all figures should be inserted into the main text close to their first citation and must be numbered following their number of appearance (Figure 1, Figure 2, etc.). Specific formats of figures are given in our template.

-Measurement units 

Units of measurement should be presented simply and concisely, following the International System of Units (SI). Imperial, US customary and other units should be converted to SI units whenever possible. Units of measure are separated from numbers by a space. Specific formats of measurement units are given in our template.


Before submitting, all authors must also agree to the IIETA’s publication ethics.


Authorship provides credit for a researcher’s papers to a study and carries accountability. Each author is expected to have made substantial papers to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data; or the creation of new software used in the work; or have drafted the work or substantively revised it; and to have approved the submitted version; and to have agreed both to be personally accountable for the author's own papers and to ensure that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work, even ones in which the author was not personally involved, are appropriately investigated, resolved, and the resolution documented in the literature.

The corresponding author should be responsible for the following with respect to data and materials: ensuring that data and materials comply with transparency and reproducibility standards of the field and journal; ensuring that original data and materials upon which the submission is based are preserved following best practices in the field so that they are retrievable for reanalysis; confirming that data and materials accurately reflects the original;  foreseeing and minimizing obstacles to the sharing of data and materials described in the work.

The corresponding author should also serve as the point of contact for queries about the published paper. It is his/her responsibility to inform all co-authors of any matters arising in relation to the published paper and to ensure such matters are dealt with promptly. Authors of published material have a responsibility to inform the journal immediately if they become aware of any aspects that requires correction.

Any changes to the author list after submission, such as a change in the order of the authors or the deletion or addition of authors, must be approved by every author. The IIETA editors are not responsible for investigating or adjudicating authorship disputes before or after publication. If they cannot be resolved amongst authors, such disagreements should be directed to the relevant institutional authority.

-Duplicate publication

Material submitted to an IIETA journal must be original and not published or submitted for publication elsewhere. If part of a paper that an author wishes to submit to an IIETA journal has appeared or will appear elsewhere, he/she must specify the details in the cover letter at the submission. Consideration by the IIETA journal is possible only if the main result, conclusions, or implications are not apparent from the other work, or if the other work is published in a language other than English. In case of any doubt, authors should seek advice from the editor handling their paper.

If an author is re-using a figure or figures published elsewhere, or that is copyrighted, the author must provide documentation that the previous publisher or copyright holder has given permission for the figure to be re-published. The IIETA editors consider all material in good faith that their journals have full permission to publish every part of the submitted material, including figures.


Plagiarism is unacknowledged copying or an attempt to misattribute original authorship, whether of ideas, text or results. Plagiarism can be said to have clearly occurred when large chunks of text have been cut-and-pasted without appropriate and unambiguous attribution. Such a paper will not be considered for publication in an IIETA journal. Aside from wholesale verbatim reuse of text, due care must be taken to ensure appropriate attribution and citation when paraphrasing and summarising the work of others. 

Text recycling, or reuse of parts of text from an author’s previous research publication, is a form of self-plagiarism. When reusing text, whether from the author’s own publication or that of others, appropriate attribution and citation is necessary to avoid creating a misleading perception of unique paper for the reader.

Duplicate publication occurs when an author reuses substantial parts of his/her own published work without providing the appropriate references. This can range from publishing an identical paper in multiple journals, to only adding a small amount of new data to a published paper.

The IIETA journal editors assess all such cases on their individual merits. When plagiarism becomes evident post-publication, the IIETA may correct or retract the original publication depending on the degree of plagiarism, context within the published article and its impact on the overall integrity of the published study. 

The IIETA uses CrossRef to screen for unoriginal material. Authors should be aware that their paper may be submitted to CrossRef at any point from submission to publication. Any allegations of plagiarism made to a journal will be investigated. If the allegations appear to be founded, we will request all named authors of the paper to explain the overlapping material. If the explanation is not satisfactory, we will reject the submission, and may also reject future submissions.

-Competing interests

In the interests of transparency and to help readers form their own judgements of potential bias, the IIETA requires authors to declare any competing financial and/or non-financial interests in relation to the work described. 

In this policy, competing interests are defined as financial and non-financial interests that could directly undermine, or be perceived to undermine the objectivity, integrity and value of a publication, through a potential influence on the judgements and actions of authors regarding objective data presentation, analysis and interpretation.

The corresponding author is responsible for submitting a competing interests' statement vis the OJS on behalf of all authors of the paper. Since the IIETA adopts a double-blind peer review, reviewers will be provided with a minimal statement disclosing the existence of any financial or non-financial interest, to prevent the disclosure of authors’ identities.


Editors, authors and reviewers are required to keep confidential all details of the editorial and peer review process on submitted papers. The peer review process is confidential and conducted anonymously; identities of reviewers are not released. Reviewers must maintain confidentiality of manuscripts. If a reviewer wishes to seek advice from colleagues while assessing a manuscript, the reviewer must consult with the editor and should ensure that confidentiality is maintained and that the names of any such colleagues are provided to the journal with the final report. Regardless of whether a submitted manuscript is eventually published, correspondence with the journal, reviewers’ comments and other confidential material must not be published, disclosed or otherwise publicised without prior written consent. Reviewers should be aware that it is our policy to keep their names confidential and that we do our utmost to ensure this confidentiality. We cannot, however, guarantee to maintain this confidentiality in the face of a successful legal action to disclose identity. The IIETA reserves the right to contact funders, regulatory bodies, journals and the authors’ institutions in cases of suspected research or publishing misconduct.


Please note that, once the editorial board informs the author that the paper under review is accepted, via email or online journal system, it is tacitly approved that the copyright of the paper is transferred from the author to the journal, no matter whether Copyright Transfer Agreement is signed or the formal acceptance letter is offered instantly after the acceptance. As soon as the acceptance decision is notified, the editorial board will not agree to any request from the author for cancellation or removal of the paper.

IIETA will hold copyright on all papers, while the author will maintain all other rights including patents and the right to use and reproduce material.


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